Book Volume 1
Page: i-i (1)
Author: Sachin Kumar Jain, Ram Kumar Sahu, Priyanka Soni and Vishal Soni
List of Contributors
Page: ii-iii (2)
Origin of COVID-19
Page: 1-24 (24)
Author: Aseem Setia, Km. Nandani Jayaswal and Ram Kumar Sahu*
PDF Price: $15
Coronavirus is a type of virus that is surrounded by non-segmented, singlestranded, positive-sense RNA genomes that reproduce in the cytoplasm. The size of the coronavirus is usually 80-120 nm. It was discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and it was termed 2019 nCoV or COVID-19. The coronavirus is encased in a lipid bilayer and it possesses several proteins. These proteins are surrounded in the envelope of a virus; whereas, in the viral RNA, N-protein shows interactions and it can be found on the outer surface of the viral particle, forming the nucleocapsid. The spike protein is identified as the leading protein and mediates the entrance inside the host body that would cause SARS-CoV-2syndrome. The spike protein has two spheres namely S1 and S2. The receptor that is attached to the S1 and further S2 is responsible for fusion. In the past, the most severe types of virus which had resulted in large-scale pandemics were SARS (in 2002–2003) which occurred in Guandong Province, China. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia had experienced the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012. The virus in the 1960s was commonly identified in birds and mammals; mostly in rats, camels, cats and bats. SARS-CoV-2 causative agents belong to the genus β-Coronavirus. Coronavirus can be classified into four genera such as α, β, γ, and δ coronavirus. Alpha and beta coronaviruses are found in mammals such as bats. Gamma coronaviruses would primarily infect birds and affect mammalians, whereas delta coronaviruses would infect both birds and mammals. This chapter highlights the origin, historical background, the classification of the coronavirus as well as providing the conceptual information on various treatment approaches for COVID-19.
COVID-19: Sign, Symptoms and Transmission
Page: 25-45 (21)
Author: Saket Singh Chandel*, Deepshikha Verma and Vipinchandra Bhaskarrao Pande
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COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China in late 2019. Till date, over 12.1 million people have contracted the disease across 221 countries in the world. The global fatality rate is about 6.2% thus far, and as of May 26th 2020, the highest confirmed cases were recorded in the USA, Brazil, Russia, Spain, UK, Italy and France. Several attempts to fight against the virus are taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as other health agencies in various countries with reported confirmed cases. The present study has reviewed COVID-19 with respect to the clinical symptoms and signs, as well as factors that could exacerbate COVID-19 condition and transmission amongst people. Recent reports and studies have found the disease status to be of the predominantly mild condition and to a lesser extent, a critical/severe status. COVID-19 presents several clinical manifestations with symptoms such as fever, dry cough, fatigue, dizziness, anorexia, headache, expectoration, dyspnea, chest tightness, abdominal pain, diarrhea and nausea. Studies have observed age, obesity, smoking and drinking habit, immune system condition, human selectivity and reactivity as factors that can aggravate the disease condition, while poverty, fake news, non-validated scientific claims, and perception/illiteracy have been reported as risk components that could enhance the transmission of the viral infection. This study concludes by suggesting the appropriate methods to combat the factors discussed.
A Silver Lining for Covid 19: Nutraceuticals and Plant Secondary Metabolites
Page: 46-69 (24)
Author: Neetesh Kumar Jain* and Nitu Singh
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There are some confines to the worldwide disease instigated by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), for now, a vaccine or treatment is available. According to SAGE, the Pfizer-BioNTech, COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is safe and effective. Vaccination is not recommended for certain populations due to contraindications, lack of availability, or inadequate data. Individuals with a background of grave allergies, pregnant women, and foreign travellers who are not part of a prioritized group, and children under the age of 16 are all cautioned against getting the vaccine. This necessitates the use of some alternatives that strengthen the immune system. The new therapies and medications provide our bodies with a window duration that aids in the creation of adaptive ion channels. The human immunity system is made up of various body organs and cells that work together with a symphony to defend the host from foreign particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and so on. To synthesize various types of immune cells, our body needs a broad range of small amounts (vitamins and minerals) and large amounts (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) nutrients. Certain established prehistoric herbs that improve immunity include garlic, basil leaves, and black pepper. The following chapter includes a list of immunesupporting nutraceuticals (such as omega-3 fats, glucans, amino acids, probiotics, vitamins, and minerals) and plant’s secondary metabolites, as well as the impression of their supplementation in boosting the body’s immunity to make it able to combat COVID-19.
Risk Factors of Covid-19 Enhancing Transmission and Aggravating Patient’s Condition
Page: 70-109 (40)
Author: Vishal Trivedi*, Vinod Nautiyal and Retno Widyowati
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For the last couple of years, novel coronavirus or SAR-CoV-2 is a severe threat to the world. This new strain of coronavirus emerged on 14th December 2020 and has been infecting many parts of the population around the world to date. These viral spikes will bind with the angiotensin-converting enzymes. Many clinical studies conducted have highlighted the association between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19. It increases the mortality rate, the risk of injury in myocardial, acute coronary syndromes and thromboembolism. COVID-19 has produced some risk factors such as age and gender as well as comorbidities. Coronavirus may pose several challenges for oncology patients. Among cancer patients, severe respiratory and systemic infection are evident specifically among immunosuppressed and ageing patients. Cancer is said to worsen due to COVID-19 as it is linked with inflammatory burst and lymphopenia. This study has discussed the risk factors in COVID-19 transmission, factors that can aggravate it and clinical interactions between the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, several drugs that have been administered against the virus are believed to affect the patients.
Indian Expedition against Covid-19 through Traditional Drugs
Page: 110-125 (16)
Author: Rupesh Kumar Pandey, Sokindra Kumar, Lubhan Singh, Priyanka Pandey, Rakesh Sagar, Ravindra Kumar Pandey and Shiv Shankar Shukla*
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COVID-19 was a menace to India's densely populated country. The entire globe is dealing with the same problem, but India is fighting it in its own unique way, namely via the use of ancient traditional medicines. Every country used to shut down as a first line of defence to safeguard its population; the whole globe came to a halt during the epidemic, and people were confined to their homes. A preparation program was needed to prepare their country and reconstruct their medical institution in the event of a pandemic. The entire globe is paying tribute to all of the corona warriors for their selfless commitment and unwavering care for patients during this critical period. The Indian government has also taken some swift moves to combat the sickness by employing certain traditional medicines. Many researchers went to considerable lengths not just to give therapy but also preventative strategies. Immunity has been proven to be the most critical factor in the illness. This chapter tries to highlight the most important traditional medications utilised by Indians from ancient times. Indians employ a variety of spices in their cooking, many of which are high in chemical elements that can help with a variety of ailments. When Ayurveda has been called upon, it has demonstrated its usefulness several times. The usage of traditional medications in every home is well documented in the Indian system. Since ancient times, the customary approach has been shown to be reliable and applicable. Many ailments have been categorised and evidence-based information has been provided by Indian literature such as the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia and Chark Samhita. It also reflected the immunity level of Indians and they explored the uses of these traditional drugs in the dosage form i.e. kadha, Chwanpras, etc. The expedition showed great reflection in terms of the recovery rate of patients i.e. 97.15 percent, deaths were also minimized as compared to developed countries in terms of the population ratio.
Herbal Therapy for COVID-19
Page: 126-147 (22)
Author: Upendra S. Bhadoriya*, Ankit Jain and Sachin Kumar Jain
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The Covid-19 epidemic is presently ravaging the world, claiming the lives of countless people. This health crisis is well recognised to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the problem has yet to be remedied. Many modern doctors and researchers feel that a person's disease resistance ability is critical in battling viral infections. If used appropriately, herbal therapy can be a game changer in this case, since herbal drugs significantly boost or modify immune function, enhancing resistance to microbial infections. These drugs alter the cellular immune response, enhance immunity, impart antioxidant effect, raise IgG antibody production, activate macrophages, have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and so relieve symptoms and reduce viral infection pathology development. Herbal medicine can also aid in the prevention of viral infections by blocking virus entrance and replication in the host cell. Due to their vast therapeutic capabilities, Curcumin, Shunthi, Bhumiamalki, Guduchi, Yashtimadhu, Pippali, and Haritaki, among other drugs, can be examined for their efficiency and safety against viral infection. The potential uses of herbal medicine as a supplementary and alternative treatment for SARS-CoV-2 illness were reviewed in this chapter. However, further research into the effects of herbal treatment in COVID-19 is needed.
Herbal Immune-Booster for COVID-19
Page: 148-167 (20)
Author: Raja Chakraborty, Saikat Sen, Bhargab Jyoti Sahariah, Chayanika Bordoloi* and Sunil Mistry
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Medicinal plants always play a vital role by enhancing immunity and protecting us against different infections caused by microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The complex immune protection mechanism produces limitless cells or chemicals to control the spectrum of infectious agents and diseases caused by them. Medicinal plants contain different immunomodulatory constituents that amplify or inhibit the components present in the immune system. In India, people have used numerous medicinal plants and plant products since ancient times to boost the immune system and maintain its normal functioning capacity. Traditional herbaceuticals can boost body defense and improvise our health to survive better. In the last two years, the COVID-19 pandemic became a significant health concern. The healthcare system and scientists are fighting generously to save people. Existing medical facilities are not enough to beat the pandemic condition; therefore, the search for alternative remedies is gaining attention. Indeed, public health measures and the immune-boosting process are considered crucial approaches to dwindle the threat and mortality caused by infection. This chapter highlighted immune boosters from plant sources that can play an essential role as an alternative approaches to managing the current pandemic scenario.
Page: 168-184 (17)
This handbook provides an introduction to COVID-19 and herbal medications that boost the human immune system against SARS-CoV-2. The topics are covered in 7 chapters starting with an introduction to the disease, followed by notes on nutraceuticals and common herbal medicines that have therapeutic potential by enhancing the patient's immune response. Special topics such as COVID-19 risk factors and Indian traditional medicines are also included to supplement the contents. The editors have taken advantage of the vast body of knowledge accumulated since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019. Chapters are written in simple language with structured headings to facilitate a quick understanding of the subject. References are provided for scholars interested in further readings. The book is a quick guide on immune boosting medicines for a broad audience that includes general medical practitioners, nurses, caregivers, and public healthcare workers involved in clinics working in local communities.