The Anatomical Foundations of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Medicine Macroanatomy Microanatomy Sonoanatomy Functional anatomy

Functional Anatomy of the Nerves of the Upper Extremity

Author(s): André P. Boezaart

Pp: 133-157 (25)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681081915116010012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


All or most of the nerves of interest to regional anesthesiologists or acute pain physicians are mixed nerves with autonomic, sensory, motor, and proprioception functions. Each function is conducted by a specific type of nerve axon. We have provided an overview of these axons and their functions in Chapter 2 (Table 1 of Chapter 2). For the purposes of this chapter, the authors focus on the sensory and motor functions of each of the nerves. To create the video productions that accompany this chapter, Mary Bryson painted the muscles and nerves on a model and we used percutaneous nerve mapping as described by Bösenberg and his colleagues to illustrate the motor function of each nerve (Movies 1 to 11). With the aid of a peripheral nerve stimulator, the path of many superficial peripheral nerves can be “mapped” prior to skin penetration by stimulating the motor component of the peripheral nerve percutaneously with 1.5- to 2.5-mA current output.

Keywords: Accessory nerve, Acute pain medicine, Autonomic function, Axillary nerve, Body painting, Brachial plexus cords, Brachial plexus roots, Brachial plexus trunks, Dorsal scapular nerve, Long thoracic nerve, Median nerve, Mixed nerves, Motor function, Musculocutaneous nerve, Nerve axon, Percutaneous nerve mapping, Percutaneous nerve stimulation, Peripheral nerve stimulator, Phrenic nerve, Proprioception function, Radial nerve, Regional anesthesia, Sensory function, Suprascaplular nerve, Ulnar nerve.

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