Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a spectrum of fatal diseases including Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Higher incidence of BL and NPC seen in developing world demands an effective vaccine to prevent infection and disease onset. EBV primarily infects people during infant or adolescent ages and establishes latent infection. Vast majority of EBVassociated diseases develop later in immune-compromised individuals, suggesting the link between host immunity and viral reactivation. This chapter discusses viral factors that EBV produces whose interactions with host may determine infection, reactivation, immune evasion and disease progression, and further reviews vaccine formulations tested to date. Knowledge in such viral factors is indispensable for vaccine advances.
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus, Burkitt’s lymphoma, viral factors, latent infection, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Herpesviridae, Gammaherpesvirinae, B cells, infectious mononucleosis, EBNA, LMP, lytic phase, latency, EBER, BCRF1, BHRF1, BZLF1, gp350, gp220, virus