The Role of Nitric Oxide in Type 2 Diabetes

Nitrate, Nitrite and Type 2 Diabetes

Author(s): Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Khosrow Kashfi and Asghar Ghasemi *

Pp: 303-323 (21)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815079814122010017

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Recent research punctuates that the nitrate (NO3)-nitrite (NO2)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway may be a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes (T2D), a NOdisrupted metabolic disorder. Nutritional aspects of the NO3-NO2-NO pathway has been highlighted by focusing on the protective effects of some traditional high-NO3 diet, such as Mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diets and their NO3-rich components, i.e., fruits, vegetables, legumes, and green leafy vegetables, against the development of T2D. Both acute and long-term administration of inorganic NO3 and NO2 in animal experiments display anti-diabetic properties; inorganic NO3 decreases fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and proinsulin to insulin ratio and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to animal experiments, NO3/NO2 therapy has failed to show anti-diabetic properties and beneficial effects on glucose and insulin homeostasis in humans. This lost-i- -translation remains an open question, and long-term clinical trials are needed to confirm the salutary effects of inorganic NO3 and NO2 as the natural NO boosters in patients with T2D.

Keywords: Acceptable Daily Intake, Insulin Resistance, Hypertension, Metabolic Syndrome, Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitrate, Nitrite, Type 2 Diabetes.

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