Emerging Trends in Veterinary Virology

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Author(s): Waqar Saleem *

Pp: 111-119 (9)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815036961122010012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


SARC-CoV belongs to the group beta-coronavirus of the family
Coronaviridae, the largest RNA viruses. First emerged from China in 2003, it spread to
other parts of the world in the following year. A closely related MERS-CoV was
reported in 2013 with 30-90% fatality. The virus contains four structural proteins (S, E,
M, and N) along with non-structural and accessory proteins involved in viral
pathogenesis and virulence. The virus mainly spreads through aerosols; bats are
reservoir hosts; human-human transmission is also reported. It attacks lungs’ tissue by
virus-specific ACE2 receptors. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines increase
during infection. Fever, pain, and dyspnea are important clinical signs, and death
occurs due to acute and severe respiratory distress. Autopsy lesions resemble the HPAI
H5N1 strain. RT-PCR is mainly used for accurate detection of the virus. No specific
treatment or vaccine is available at this stage, but certain drugs like ribavirin have
shown potential results.

Keywords: Coronavirus, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

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