Radionuclides therapy (RNT) development is a multidisciplinary endeavor.
It requires expertise in radiochemistry, radiobiology, oncology, pharmacology, medical
physics, and nuclear medicine. Many pharmaceutical companies are not familiar with
the aspects of radiation and radionuclide therapy, and the deployment of RNT agents
for cancer therapy is also unfamiliar to the oncology community. When compared with
almost all other systemic cancer treatment options, RNT has shown efficacy with
minimal toxicity. Moreover, molecular radiobiology needs to be further explored to
gain knowledge of the bystander's radiation effect. It can lead to updating for systemic
radionuclide therapy concept. This paper aims to review radiation biology and
radionuclides concepts to better understand the importance of basic concepts of
ionizing radiation, particularly for a systemic cancer treatment option.