Nanoparticulate formulations have been valuable imaging tools in preclinical cardiovascular disease research. Nanocarriers' distinct properties are useful to carry out imaging with significant functional versatility, which is not achieved by traditional small-molecule agents. Various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) require molecular and cellular mechanisms understanding, which will provide valuable insight towards theranostic (diagnostic and therapeutic) applications. Nanocarriers and radiolabeled nanoparticulate probes demonstrate their utility in several CVDs applications such as blood pool imaging and molecular imaging of ischemia, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Further, these emergent technologies need to address safety, toxicity and regulatory obligations for their clinical translation.