Diabetic eye disease is a potential vision-threatening condition. The most well-known complication of uncontrolled diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, but diabetes can affect various structures of the globe other than the retina. Anterior segment complications include ocular surface disease, which includes Dry Eye Syndrome and diabetic keratopathy, cataracts, refractive changes, extraocular movement disorders, and neovascular glaucoma. Posterior segment complications include diabetic papillopathy and retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy causes vision loss in multiple ways including macular edema and ischemia, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. Tight glucose control can help to prevent these complications from occurring.
Keywords: Cataract, Dry Eye Syndrome, Diabetic keratopathy, Diabetic papillopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic macular edema, Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Neovascular glaucoma, Ocular surface disease, Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Tractional retinal detachment.