This particular chapter highlights how medical profession over the years has evolved regarding the concept of osteomyelitis of the jaws. Before the antibiotic era, it was considered as a dreaded disease. Nowadays, with the advent of antibiotics, osteomyelitis can be easily controlled. The dental science has succeeded to the heights that it is even not common for people to develop osteomyelitis often as compared to the incidence of osteomyelitis in the past. The patients opt for timely as well as better dental treatment modalities. Furthermore, dental professionals perform the dental treatment taking care of the systemic condition of the patient too. This has reduced the occurrence of osteomyelitis of the jaws. As far as the Epidemiology is concerned, Osteomyelitis of jaws is uncommon in developed countries, but it continues to be a source of significant concern in developing nations.