Diabetes involves pancreatic dysfunction due to autoimmune destruction of the beta cells and insulin deficiency. The prevalence and incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 are increasing in the general population. Type 1 Diabetes often begins in childhood and requires lifelong insulin replacement therapy and monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long and short-acting insulin allows for adjustment of therapies around patients’ lives, but close medical observation and a good patient-provider relationship is necessary for optimal management. Type 2 Diabetes is characterized by severe insulin resistance and partial deficiency that has become more prevalent in pediatric patients, often occurring around puberty. Therapy involves lifestyle changes to promote active weight loss, healthy eating habits, and exercise. Few pharmacological therapies are approved, but many are being studied for pediatric use.
Keywords: Artificial Pancreas, Bariatric Surgery, Closed Loop Control, Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Injection, Glucagon, Insulin, Lifestyle Changes, Metformin, Multiple Daily Insulin Injections, Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes.