Generic placeholder image

Anti-Infective Agents

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2211-3525
ISSN (Online): 2211-3533

Research Article

Evaluation of In-Vitro Antioxidant Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Nephrolepis biserrata (sw.) Schott. Leaf Extracts

Author(s): Sonia Singh*

Volume 20, Issue 4, 2022

Published on: 15 July, 2022

Article ID: e010522204320 Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2211352520666220501163415

Price: $65

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to determine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott leaf extracts against different microbial strains, including 4 gram-positive bacteria, 4 gram-negative bacteria, 3 yeast, and 4 mould.

Methods: The agar well diffusion method examined the antimicrobial activity of Nephrolepis biserrata leaf extracts against test micro-organisms. Additionally, TPC (total phenolic content), TFC (total flavonoid content), and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay of extracts were determined.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of all three extracts revealed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponin glycosides, and flavonoids. Results obtained were compared with the antibiotics Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Gentamicin used as standards. The mean zones of inhibition of methanol extract varied from 7 to 25 mm. However, with petroleum ether extract, the range varied from 9 to 12 mm and with acetone extract, the range was from 8 to 13 mm at two different concentrations of 250 and 500μg/disc. All extracts possessed significant antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains including Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus Vulgaris, and Klebsiella pneumonia compared to fungal microbes such as Cryptococcus luteolus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Aspergillus candidus, A. niger, and Mucor hiemalis wehmer, respectively. However, amongst all the three extracts, methanol leaf extract showed maximum antimicrobial activity.

Conclusion: From the present study, it has been summarized that the antimicrobial activity of plants might be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannin components. In conclusion, still advanced research is required to isolate the active principles from plant extracts, showing antimicrobial activity that may lead to the development of a phytomedicine.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, methanol, microbial strains, phytomedicine, zone of inhibition, amphotericin b, fluconazole.

Graphical Abstract

[1]
Aneja, K.R.; Dhiman, R.; Aggarwal, N.K.; Aneja, A. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices. Int. J. Microbiol., 2014, 2014758942
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/758942] [PMID: 25332721]
[2]
Tajkarimi, M.M.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Cliver, D.O. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control, 2010, 21(9), 1199-1218.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.003]
[3]
Dhiman, R.; Aggarwal, N.K.; Kaur, M. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activities of commonly used Indian spices against microbes associated with juices. Res J Microbiol, 2015, 10(4), 170-180.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jm.2015.170.180]
[4]
Negi, P.S. Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: Efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2012, 156(1), 7-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.03.006] [PMID: 22459761]
[5]
Lucera, A.; Costa, C.; Conte, A.; Del Nobile, M.A. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds. Front. Microbiol., 2012, 3, 287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00287] [PMID: 23060862]
[6]
Langeland, K A Natural area weeds: Distinguishing native and non-native" boston ferns" and" sword ferns"(Nephrolepis spp.); University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 2001, 3-6.
[7]
Boonkerd, T.; Chantanaorrapint, S.; Khwaiphan, W. Pteridophyte diversity in the tropical lowland rainforest of Khao Nan National park, Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Tropical Natural History, 2008, 8, 83-97.
[8]
Christensen, H. Uses of ferns in two indigenous communities in Sarawak, Malaysia. Holttum Memorial Volume; Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew, 1997, pp. 177-192.
[9]
Kartesz, J T A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1999.
[10]
Jiofack, T.; Fokunang, C.; Kemeuze, V.; Fongnzossie, E.; Tsabang, N.; Nkuinkeu, R.; Mapongmetsem, P.M.; Nkongmeneck, B.A. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacopoea of the South-West ethnoecological region of Cameroon. J. Med. Plants Res., 2008, 2, 197-206.
[11]
Malan, D.F.; Neuba, D.F. Traditional practices and medicinal plants use during pregnancy by Anyi-Ndenye women (Eastern Côte d’Ivoire). Afr. J. Reprod. Health, 2011, 15(1), 85-93.
[PMID: 21987942]
[12]
Piggott, A.G.; Piggott, C.J. Ferns of Malaysia in colour; Tropical Press: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1988, p. 458.
[13]
Shah, M.D.; Yong, Y.S.; Iqbal, M. Phytochemical investigation and free radical scavenging activities of essential oil, methanol extract and methanol fractions of Nephrolepis biserrate. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 6, 269-277.
[14]
Shah, M.D.; Gnanaraj, C.; Haque, A.T.; Iqbal, M. Antioxidative and chemopreventive effects of Nephrolepis biserrata against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats. Pharm. Biol., 2015, 53(1), 31-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2014.909502] [PMID: 25243876]
[15]
Sharma, C.; Aneja, K.R.; Kasera, R.; Aneja, A. Antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruit extracts against ear pathogens. World J. Otorhinolaryngol., 2012, 2(2), 8-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5319/wjo.v2.i2.8]
[16]
Ramesh, N.; Viswanathan, M.B.; Saraswathy, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Brindha, P.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on Drynaria quercifolia. Fitoterapia, 2001, 72(8), 934-936.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(01)00342-2] [PMID: 11731121]
[17]
Kokate, C.K. Practical Pharmacognosy, 3rd ed; VPN: New Delhi, 1991, pp. 107-111.
[18]
Brand-Williams, W.; Cuvelier, M.E.; Berset, C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 1995, 28(1), 25-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5]
[19]
Hatano, T.; Kagawa, H.; Yasuhara, T.; Okuda, T. Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice root: Their relative astringency and radical scavenging effects. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 1988, 36(6), 2090-2097.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.36.2090] [PMID: 3240445]
[20]
Bauer, A.T. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 1996, 45, 149-158.
[21]
Parekh, J.; Chanda, S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Trapa natans L. fruit rind extracted in different solvents. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2007, 6, 760-770.
[22]
Pelczar, M.J.; Chan, E.C.S.; Krieg, N.R. Microbiology: Concepts and applications; Mc Graw-Hill Inc: New York, 2011, pp. 75-76.
[23]
Rani, D.; Khare, P.B.; Dantu, P.K. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties of aqueous and non-aqueous frond extracts of Psilotum nudum, Nephrolepis biserrate and Nephrolepis cordifolia. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2010, 72(6), 818-822.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.84606] [PMID: 21969763]
[24]
Oloyede, F.A.; Ajayi, O.S.; Bolaji, I.O.; Famudehin, T.T. An assessment of biochemical, phytochemical and anti-nutritional compositions of a tropical fern: Nephrolepis cordifolial. Ife J. Sci., 2013, 15, 645-651.
[25]
Scalbert, A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry, 1991, 30(12), 3875-3883.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(91)83426-L]
[26]
Cushnie, T.P.; Lamb, A.J. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 2005, 26(5), 343-356.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002] [PMID: 16323269]
[27]
Baydar, N.G.; Özkan, G.; Sağdiç, O. Total phenolic contents and antibacterial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) extracts. Food Control, 2004, 15(5), 335-339.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00083-5]
[28]
Vaquero, M.R.; Alberto, M.R.; De Nadra, M.M. Antibacterial effect of phenolic compounds from different wines. Food Control, 2007, 18(2), 93-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.08.010]
[29]
Ben Mansour, A.; Porter, E.A.; Kite, G.C.; Simmonds, M.S.; Abdelhedi, R.; Bouaziz, M. Phenolic profile characterization of Chemlali olive stones by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2015, 63(7), 1990-1995.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00353] [PMID: 25650173]
[30]
Mahmoudi, S.; Khali, M.; Benkhaled, A.; Benamirouche, K.; Baiti, I. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from ten Algerian Ficus carica L. varieties. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2016, 6(3), 239-245.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.12.010]
[31]
Ksouri, W.M.; Medini, F.; Mkadmini, K.; Legault, J.; Magné, C.; Abdelly, C.; Ksouri, R. LC-ESI-TOF-MS identification of bioactive secondary metabolites involved in the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the edible halophyte Zygophyllum album Desf. Food Chem., 2013, 139(1-4), 1073-1080.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.047] [PMID: 23561211]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy