Innovations in neonatal care began to occur mostly in the second half the 20th century. Infant mortality rate was 26 per 1000 live births in 1960. By 2000 it has been reduced to 6.9. The preliminary infant mortality rate for 2010 was 6.14 per 1,000 live births. U.S. has high rate of prematurity compared to other developed countries. Preterm birth rate peaked at 12.8 in 2006. It fell in 2010 for the 4th year in a row to 11.99 percent. However, the infant mortality rate for black infants was 11.6 per 1,000 live births, more than twice the rate for white infants. Nevertheless, gestational age specific mortality in the U.S. is similar to that of other developed nations.
Keywords: Neonatal care, Infant mortality, Maternal mortality, Neonatal mortality, Late preterm infants, Prematurity, Multiple births, Non-invasive monitoring, Neuroimaging, In vitro Fertilization, HIV, RDS, ROP, Inhaled nitric oxide, Antenatal steroids, Surfactant.