Soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are important citrus pests. They are sessile insects that damage citrus by sucking plant sap, thus reducing plant vigor. They also excrete copious amounts of honeydew that promotes the development of sooty mold fungi, which hinder the photosynthetic ability of the plant and directly reduce the market value of the fruit. In the Mediterranean Region six species are of economic importance for citrus production: Coccus hesperidum (Linnaeus), Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), Saissetia oleae (Olivier), Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus), Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, and Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio. Field and microscopic identification keys are provided and notes on their biology and current practices of pest management are also reviewed.