β-Glucans are naturally occurring carbohydrates found in plants, fungi and some bacterial species. They possess immunomodulating activities, but their mechanisms of action are not well understood. β-Glucans are recognised by the vertebrate immune system via pattern recognition receptors such as Dectin-1. Recent studies of Dectin-1 and other β-glucan receptors have enabled us to begin to unravel the mechanisms underlying the immune stimulating properties of these carbohydrates. There is also a strong evidence that β-glucan recognition is an important component of anti-fungal immunity. Here we will review the mammalian β-glucan receptors, with a particular focus on Dectin-1.