Ultrasound Technology for Fuel Processing

Basic Concepts of Ultrasound and its Effects on Fuel Processing

Author(s): Maneesh Kumar Poddar, Pritam Kumar Dikshit and Sankar Chakma *

Pp: 1-34 (34)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815049848123010006

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Ultrasound-assisted technique is well-known for process intensification via chemical and physical changes under the influence of acoustic cavitation. Acoustic cavitation is the phenomenon of nucleation, growth, and collapse of cavitation bubbles into a liquid medium that augments the reaction kinetics and the final process yield. This chapter provides a fundamental and detailed understanding of the acoustic cavitation phenomenon. It includes the history and origin of the acoustic wave and its formation, the concept of cavitation bubbles, bubble nucleation and growth mechanism, cavitation effects, and its types. Numerous process parameters, such as applied frequency, intensity, temperature, dissolved gas content, etc., also directly or indirectly influence the cavitation threshold are also highlighted. Further, the ultrasound's physical and chemical effects involving various chemical and biochemical processes to enhance the process yield are also reviewed. The mode of generation of ultrasound energy and its measurement technique are also briefly discussed. Finally, an overview of modeling and simulation of radial motion of single bubble growth, its oscillation in both ultrasound-assisted and conventional systems, and bubble growth rate under rectified diffusion are also discussed in detail. 

Keywords: Acoustic cavitation, Bubble dynamics, Cavitation, Intensity, Oxidation, Ultrasound, Ultrasound power.

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