Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a prevalent human-specific pathogen, plays
a key role in the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Once infected, those bacteria reside
below the gastric mucosa adherent to the gastric epithelium, and entry of drugs to this
target site is very difficult. The bacteria can also acquire resistance to commonly used
antimicrobial drugs. Thus, an effective antimicrobial concentration cannot be achieved
in the gastric mucous layer or on the epithelial cell surfaces where H. pylori exist and
caused inefficient treatment. Such challenges have encouraged researchers into
developing some therapies based on nanotechnology.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Gastro-retentive delivery system, H. pylori, Nanoparticles, pH responsive nanoparticles, Herbal approach, Liposomes, Lectins, Nanogels, Nanoparticulate vaccine, Mucoadhesion, Nanocarriers, Nanolipobeads, Polymeric nano-micelles, Receptor mediated targeting.