Environmental Law in the Russian Federation

International Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection

Author(s): Aleksey Anisimov and Anatoliy Ryzhenkov

Pp: 222-243 (22)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815049169122010010

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


In this chapter, it is stated that the international environmental law is a set of international legal principles and rules governing international relations regarding the protection of the environment from negative impact. These rules and regulations ensure the rational use of environemnt and its components and provide favorable conditions for the life and health of the present and future generations of people. The development in international environmental cooperation was gradual, like the development of national (Russian) environmental law. Some references to international cooperation in this chapter in environmental protection can be found even in the era of the ancient world. However, the full-fledged international cooperation in environmental protection began only in the second half of the 19th century. This can be explained by the fact that the human impact on nature was small before the Industrial Revolution. The negative impact of the neighboring countries on nature arose with the massive construction of plants that release emissions into the air and water bodies. This resulted in the need for governments of different countries to agree on various parameters about the safety of the environment. The development of international cooperation in environmental protection is divided into several stages. It is pointed out that international environmental law is a young branch of law closely interacting with other branches of international law, including international maritime, air, and space law. These branches of law regulate relations regarding the exploitation of the relevant natural resources and are based on the exercise of the rights of sovereign states to use natural resources. According to the authors, international environmental law has an independent subject of legal regulation – international environmental relations, which can be conveniently divided into three groups: a) Relations for the prevention and limitation of the harmful impact on the environment, which can be resolved only by efforts of the entire world community (pollution of the World Ocean, the air basin, pollution of the environment during military conflicts, etc.); b) Ensuring the rational use of international natural resources (for example, resources of the sea bed); c) Protection of unique natural objects through their conservation from human economic impact (for example, natural heritage sites, wetlands, rare animals and plants, etc.).
The subjects of international environmental law include states, international organizations, and international non-governmental organizations. However, states are the main subject of international law.

Keywords: Air, Arctic, Armed conflict, Conventions, Climate, Declarations, International law, Flora, Fauna, International organizations, International nongovernmental organizations, Nature, Oil, Refugees, Swamps, State, Tanker, UN, UNESCO, World Ocean

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