Agriculture wastes or agro-wastes are byproducts obtained after the
processing of crops and other agriculture products. The worldwide production of a
huge quantity of agro-wastes presents different challenges in the environment.
Agriculture wastes are potentially toxic to plants, humans, animals, as well as different
components of the environment. The burning of agricultural waste causes serious
environmental pollution, while dumping causes leaching and soil deterioration. Despite
several drawbacks, the valorization of agriculture waste has been a promising approach
for their sustainable management. Agriculture wastes are rich in lignocellulosic
material that include cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and also contain pectin,
proteins, lipids, and polyphenols. About 50% agro-wastes are obtained from wheat,
rice, and oilseed crops that contain 0.5% N, 0.2% P2O5, and 1.5% K2O. The rich
nutrient and mineral content of agro-wastes presents them as a good raw material for
the production of different valued products. Production of valued products such as
enzyme, ethanol, compost, biogas, mushroom, and animal feed using agriculture wastes
as a substrate has been discussed. The present chapter converses the utilization of agrowaste
for the production of different value-added products and also describes the
challenges and advancements during the fermentation of wastes into products.
Keywords: Advancements, Agriculture wastes, Challenges, Enzymes, Fermentation, Management, Pollution, Valorization.