Countries around the globe, including India, face big environmental
challenges related to waste generation, improper collection, transport, treatment, and
disposal. The huge solid waste generation is also directly correlated with the large
urban population and damage the ecosystem. The sludge contains various types of toxic
substances such as detergents, pesticides, soluble salts, and a substantial quantity of
various heavy metals like zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead
that obstruct metabolism and specific enzyme activities. Therefore, a sustainable
technique for remediation of such toxic metals and other pollutants from contaminated
sites needs to be developed. Several findings have been demonstrated in the present
chapter for the use of various efficient plant species to clean up heavy metal and other
hazardous materials from sewage and tannery sludge.
Keywords: Bioremediation, Heavy metals, Phytoremediation, Plant species, Sludge, Solid Waste.