Exposure to radioactive radiation-emitting of the nuclear energy power
plant, medical industry, food industry causes serious threats to the living system and
the environment. Radioactivity is a cause of ionizing emission of high-energy particles
like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation with high frequency and intensity.
Radioactive wastes are categorized as low-level waste (LLW), intermediate-level waste
(ILW), or high-level waste (HLW), depending upon their radioactivity. A plethora of
strategies, including physical methods (incineration, filtration), chemical methods (ion
exchange, precipitation, absorption), and biological methods (microbial assisted
remediation and phytoremediation), have been adopted to mitigate radioactive wastes
from the contaminated sites and water bodies. This chapter is focused on
bioremediation methods as a powerful technique offering an eco-friendly and
economical solution to global radioactive waste disposal problems and other associated
Keywords: Bioremediation, Ionizing-Radiations, Phytoremediation, Radioactive metals, Radioactive waste.