In traditional centralized electricity generation units, fossil fuels, such as
coal, oil, and liquefied natural gas, and steam turbines are used to generate continuous
and stable power for loads. However, these units produce emissions and cause
pollution. Green power, including wind and solar power, provides maximum
environmental benefits and is associated with zero emissions and low pollution.
However, climatic variations may result in the requirement of a high spinning reserve
for a green power system; thus, the development of green power has been limited. An
electric storage system (ESS) can overcome the aforementioned problem. The
household vehicle market provides various types of vehicles, such as internal
combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid EVs, and
fuel-cell EVs. However, many developed countries are planning to ban ICE vehicles
between 2030 and 2040. EVs are driven with zero emissions by an electric motor.
Moreover, these vehicles can achieve high torque with low speed and are thus more
efficient than traditional ICE vehicles. However, the use of EVs is limited by their high
battery costs and long charging time. With the progress of battery technology, battery
and ESS costs are decreasing. Affordable electricity storage devices would enhance the
efficiency of green power generation systems and the adoption of green power.
Multiple power-generating resources are associated with low emissions; thus, vehicles
running on traditional fossil fuels are gradually being replaced by vehicles running on
Keywords: Battery electric vehicle (BEV), Electric storage system (ESS), Electric vehicle (EV), Fuel-cell electric vehicle, Green power, Greenhouse effect, Household vehicle, Intermittent power, Internal combustion engine (ICE), Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), Renewable energy, Sustainable energy, Traditional centralized electricity generation.