Laser surface treatments for surface modification, parts renewal, and manufacturing of complex/near-net-shaped components are the recent research hotspots. Laser cladding is one such bulk deposition coating technique, where an amalgamation of materials with desirable properties is melted using a laser energy source and deposited over a moving substrate. Once the deposited material cools and solidifies, a clad layer is formed on the substrate resulting in strong metallurgical bonding inducing elevated heat resistance coating and tribological properties of the meshing surfaces. This chapter reviews the influences of various laser cladding process parameters, such as laser power, scan speed, beam diameter, powder feeding methods/rate, beam focal position on the cladding geometry, dilution rate, layer thickness, aspect ratio, microstructure, and tribological properties. Then, the defects observed in laser cladding techniques are reviewed, along with the causes and the remedies reported in the literature. Finally, the tribological applications of laser cladding in traditional and novel materials are also reported.
Keywords: Applications, Cooling rates, CO2 laser, Defects, Energy Density, Fiber laser, Focus Height, Functionally graded material layers, Laser Cladding, Laser Power, Microcracks, Microhardness, Nd:YAG laser, Porosity, Post Heat Treatment, Powder feed rate, Process Parameters, Remedies, Scan Speed, Wear Resistance.