The needs for purified proteins in modern medicine, research and industrial application are immense and production of proteins using recombinant technology offers solutions; proteins are used in simple laboratory experiments like protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and in diagnostic, therapeutic and industrial applications. Some examples of the application of purified recombinant proteins for the treatment of diseases include clotting factors (Factor VIII and IX) for the treatment of hemophilia, insulin-dependent diabetes, and adenosine deaminase for severely compromised immune disease. Recently, human monoclonal antibodies, like anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (Adalimumab) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and Repatha (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 or PCSK9) inhibitor antibody for the treatment of and reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and revascularization of coronary artery diseases, are produced using protein overexpression methodology described in this chapter. Use of recombinant protein technologies has enabled industries to produce proteins of human significance at a tremendous pace. Production of therapeutic proteins at large scale for millions of individuals to treat diseases is one of the essential needs of mankind. From simple proteins like albumin, growth factors, cytokines, viral vaccines and human monoclonal antibodies, all are being produced utilizing the recombinant protein expression technology and purification processes, whether in a laboratory or biopharming scale in microorganisms, animals and/or plants. This chapter summarizes various recombinant expression systems and their pharmaceutical applications.
Keywords: Adenovirus Expression System, Baculovirus-Mediated Expression System, Biopharming, CHO Expression System, Eukaryotic Expression System, Gene of Interest, History of Biopharming, Mammalian Expression System, Possible Contaminants in Expression Systems, Prokaryotic Expression System, Protein Expression System, Recombinant Proteins, Shuttle Vector, Vaccinia Virus Expression System, Yeast Expression System.