Intelligent sensing technology of agricultural products can effectively guarantee food quality and safety, and is the key technical support to promote the rapid development of the world’s agricultural products processing industry, bringing more opportunities and development space to the emerging agricultural products processing industry. Intelligent sensing technology for agricultural products is a multidisciplinary research field, which has the advantages of fast detection speed, convenient operation, and easy online detection. This work reviews the research of optical, acoustic, electrical, magnetic, and bionic sensing technologies in the processing of agricultural products, expounds the principle, structure, and typical applications of each sensing technology, and summarizes the problems and trends in the development of each sensing technology. Intelligent sensing technology for agricultural product quality and safety is developing towards the direction of high sensitivity, automation, networking, intelligence, and multi-function, and has gradually become an indispensable and important technical means for agricultural product quality and safety inspection. The intelligent sensing technology of agricultural products is developing synchronously with the integration of the Internet of things, big data, and cloud computing, which can realize the standardization, refinement, and intelligent management of the agricultural products processing process.