Polymer-based biocomposites consist of two or more different polymers that exhibit superior and unique properties when bound together. Currently, a large variety of composites are being produced in order to meet the requirements of numerous biomedical applications. This chapter focuses on synthetic polymer science, which aids in the design of novel materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In terms of current biomedical technology, many rapid developments in modern medicine have been influenced by the utilization of synthetic polymeric biocomposites (SPBc). This chapter will illuminate the advantages, specific mechanical properties, manufacturing methods, and wide range of applications (i.e. dental, orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, drug delivery systems, artificial skin, artificial cornea, surgical sutures, and biosensors) of SPBc.