The construction industry globally is known to be very conservative in terms of the methods used in project procurement and delivery. Scholars and construction professionals consider the use of innovative software such as Building Information Modelling (BIM) will result in a change in the roles and responsibilities of quantity surveyors and in improved project performance. However, there is a dearth of literature that demonstrates the impact of BIM on quantity surveyor roles and responsibilities, and project performance. This chapter examines the use of BIM in the construction industry and whether it impacts on the key roles and responsibilities of the quantity surveying professional and on construction project cost performance in South Africa. The study on which this chapter is based proposes that BIM has no impact on the conventional roles and responsibilities of quantity surveyors and project cost performance and adopts a sequential mixed-methods research approach which involves collecting and analysing quantitative and qualitative data in two successive phases within one study. The population of the study comprises of quantity surveyors in the South African construction industry. The results indicate that BIM has a negative impact on project cost performance and that the traditional roles and responsibilities of quantity surveying professionals in South Africa have not changed owing to the implementation of BIM technology, although BIM has improved the efficiency with which quantity surveyors perform their tasks. Based on these findings, the study concludes that the implementation of BIM technology on construction projects in South Africa will not change the responsibilities and roles of quantity surveyors on projects. It is therefore recommended that South African quantity surveyors use BIM technology on projects to realise the full benefits derived from its implementation internationally. However, further research is required to investigate other aspects of the implementation of BIM in the construction industry by using a larger sample and project size.