Public-private partnerships (PPPs) and relationships are essential to expedite the resolution of the challenges currently facing Medicine. Biobanking is not an island within biomedical research as a whole, and public–private partnerships in biobanking must therefore be considered in the global context of biomedical research. PPPs are certainly desirable, since they offer benefits to both sides, create win-win situations and are extremely advantageous for the whole society, but they have their own limitations and frontiers. The current chapter tries to introduce the general aspects of current PPP practices in biobanking, keeping in mind that the main objective should be the promotion of health rather than the sustainability of biobanks or benefits for industry. Compliance with applicable legislation, mutual trust, transparency and open dialogue are the key components of such partnerships.