Biotechnology is a series of enabling technologies where plants, animals, microbes or their parts are used to produce new products or to modify products for the welfare of human being directly or indirectly. DNA delivery/transfer is the pre-requisite for almost all basic and applied researches in the field of molecular biotechnology. To perform gene delivery/transfer two types of vectors are available, (i) viral vectors (ii) non-viral vectors. Among the vectors, non-viral vectors are proved less toxic and safe compare to viral vectors through clinical trial. No single vector is proved suitable for every gene transfection experiment. Cationic polymers and lipids both are experimentally established as non viral vector with higher transfection efficiency. Identifying the barriers for transfection and the possible solution, the stability improvement research is needed for better clinical performance of cationic vectors. In future, it is also possible to find out new conjugates as cationic polymers and lipid bearing novel properties, suitable to bind with DNA and penetrate cell. Considering all these properties, this chapter reviews the most recent studies highlighting cationic polymers and lipids used in non-viral gene delivery systems.
Keywords: biotechnology, cationic lipids; cationic polymers; gene therapy; peptides, non-viral