Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Delivery

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1567-2018
ISSN (Online): 1875-5704

Research Article

A Compound Essential Oil Alters Stratum Corneum Structure, Potentially Promoting the Transdermal Permeation of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ingredients

Author(s): Na Yang, Xinyi Ai, Kang Cheng, Yihan Wu, Zhi Lu, Zhenda Liu, Teng Guo* and Nianping Feng*

Volume 21, Issue 5, 2024

Published on: 02 February, 2023

Page: [744 - 752] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1567201820666230120122206

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The stratum corneum (SC) is the main barrier of the skin, and cosmeceuticals are different from ordinary cosmetics in that they need to deliver active ingredients targeting specific skin problems through the SC into the deeper layers of the skin. Thus, we designed a compound essential oil (CEO) extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge and Cinnamomum cassia Presl, supplemented with borneol to deliver active ingredients through the SC.

Methods: The CEO was prepared by flash extraction combined with the microwave method. Moreover, the main components of the CEO were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Visualization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), were used to study the permeationpromoting mechanism of the CEO on the skin. Furthermore, the permeation-promoting effects of the CEO on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic ingredients were tested via in vitro skin penetration experiments and in vivo microdialysis experiments.

Results: The results indicated the ability of the CEO to alter the structure of the SC, leading to enhanced transdermal permeation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ingredients. The 1.5% CEO group demonstrated the best permeation-promoting effect compared to the other CEO groups and blank groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the CEO displayed an expedited permeability-promoting effect on hydrophobic ingredients compared to hydrophilic ingredients.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the prepared CEO can promote the transdermal permeation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ingredients. This study will provide a reference for the application of the prepared CEO in the development of cosmeceuticals with natural efficacy.

Keywords: Stratum corneum, compound essential oil, transdermal, permeation enhancer, hydrophobic, hydrophilic.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Dini, I.; Laneri, S. The new challenge of green cosmetics: Natural food ingredients for cosmetic formulations. Molecules, 2021, 26(13), 3921.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133921] [PMID: 34206931]
[2]
Ganesan, P.; Choi, D.K. Current application of phytocompound-based nanocosmeceuticals for beauty and skin therapy. Int. J. Nanomedicine, 2016, 11, 1987-2007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S104701] [PMID: 27274231]
[3]
Goleva, E.; Berdyshev, E.; Leung, D.Y.M. Epithelial barrier repair and prevention of allergy. J. Clin. Invest., 2019, 129(4), 1463-1474.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI124608] [PMID: 30776025]
[4]
Voegeli, R.; Rawlings, A.V.; Haftek, M. Expression and ultrastructural localization of plasmin(ogen) in the terminally differentiated layers of normal human epidermis. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 2019, 41(6), 624-628.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12585] [PMID: 31604367]
[5]
Haftek, M. Epidermal barrier disorders and corneodesmosome defects. Cell Tissue Res., 2015, 360(3), 483-490.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-014-2019-1] [PMID: 25378284]
[6]
Jatana, K.G.; Sonthalia, S.; Pandey, A. Cosmeceuticals. In: StatPearls, [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing: 2022.
[7]
Zeng, L.; Huang, F.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.; Quan, D.; Song, W. Molecular perspective of efficiency and safety problems of chemical enhancers: Bottlenecks and recent advances. Drug Deliv. Transl. Res., 2022, 12(6), 1376-1394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-021-01044-y] [PMID: 34476765]
[8]
Abelan, U.S.; de Oliveira, A.C.; Cacoci, É.S.P.; Martins, T.E.A.; Giacon, V.M.; Velasco, M.V.R.; Lima, C.R.R.C. Potential use of essential oils in cosmetic and dermatological hair products: A review. J. Cosmet. Dermatol., 2022, 21(4), 1407-1418.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14286] [PMID: 34129742]
[9]
Cocetta, V.; Cadau, J.; Saponaro, M.; Giacomini, I.; Dall’Acqua, S.; Sut, S.; Catanzaro, D.; Orso, G.; Miolo, G.; Menilli, L.; Pagetta, A.; Ragazzi, E.; Montopoli, M. Further assessment of Salvia haenkei as an innovative strategy to counteract skin photo-aging and restore the barrier integrity. Aging, 2021, 13(1), 89-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202464] [PMID: 33424011]
[10]
Chang, C.T.; Chang, W.L.; Hsu, J.C.; Shih, Y.; Chou, S.T. Chemical composition and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil. Bot. Stud., 2013, 54(1), 10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1999-3110-54-10] [PMID: 28510850]
[11]
Zhang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Song, H.; Li, H.; Wen, J.; Tan, X.; Zheng, W. Design, characterization and comparison of transdermal delivery of colchicine via borneol-chemically-modified and borneol-physically-modified ethosome. Drug Deliv., 2019, 26(1), 70-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2018.1559258] [PMID: 30744424]
[12]
Kan, L.; Wang, L.; Ding, Q.; Wu, Y.; Ouyang, J. Flash extraction and physicochemical characterization of oil from Elaeagnus mollis diels seeds. J. Oleo Sci., 2017, 66(4), 345-352.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess16200] [PMID: 28239062]
[13]
Guo, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, C.; Feng, N. Nanostructured lipid carriers for percutaneous administration of alkaloids isolated from Aconitum sinomontanum. J. Nanobiotechnology, 2015, 13(1), 47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-015-0107-3] [PMID: 26156035]
[14]
Li, B.S.; Cary, J.H.; Maibach, H.I. Stratum corneum substantivity: Drug development implications. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 2018, 310(7), 537-549.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-018-1841-9] [PMID: 29752541]
[15]
Feng, N.; Zhu, Q. Transdermal delivery of Chinese medicine and efficacy cosmetics., 2019.
[16]
Cui, Y.; Mo, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Tian, W.; Xue, Y.; Bai, J.; Du, S. Microneedle-assisted percutaneous delivery of paeoniflorin-loaded ethosomes. Molecules, 2018, 23(12), 3371.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123371] [PMID: 30572626]
[17]
Mueller, J.; Oliveira, J.S.L.; Barker, R.; Trapp, M.; Schroeter, A.; Brezesinski, G.; Neubert, R.H.H. The effect of urea and taurine as hydrophilic penetration enhancers on stratum corneum lipid models. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Biomembr., 2016, 1858(9), 2006-2018.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2016.05.010] [PMID: 27195429]
[18]
Pham, Q.D.; Björklund, S.; Engblom, J.; Topgaard, D.; Sparr, E. Chemical penetration enhancers in stratum corneum — Relation between molecular effects and barrier function. J. Control. Release, 2016, 232, 175-187.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.04.030] [PMID: 27108613]
[19]
Agatonovic-Kustrin, S.; Kustrin, E.; Morton, D. Essential oils and functional herbs for healthy aging. Neural Regen. Res., 2019, 14(3), 441-445.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.245467] [PMID: 30539810]
[20]
Miller, M.A.; Yu, F.; Kim, K.; Kasting, G.B. Uptake and desorption of hydrophilic compounds from human stratum corneum. J. Control. Release, 2017, 261, 307-317.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.06.015] [PMID: 28642155]
[21]
Sharmeen, J.B.; Mahomoodally, F.M.; Zengin, G.; Maggi, F. Essential oils as natural sources of fragrance compounds for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Molecules, 2021, 26(3), 666.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030666] [PMID: 33514008]
[22]
Datta, D.; Panchal, D.S.; Venuganti, V.V.K. Transdermal delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride: Influence of chemical and physical permeation enhancers. Int. J. Pharm., 2021, 602120663
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120663] [PMID: 33933644]
[23]
Imoto, T.; Goto, M. Self-assembled palmitoyl-glycine-histidine as a permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery. Langmuir, 2021, 37(30), 8971-8977.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00889] [PMID: 34242506]
[24]
Chen, J.; Long, W.; Dong, B.; Cao, W.; Yuhang, X.; Meng, Y.; Xiaoqin, C. Hexagonal liquid crystalline system containing cinnamaldehyde for enhancement of skin permeation of sinomenine hydrochloride. Pharm. Dev. Technol., 2022, 27(6), 684-694.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2022.2107011] [PMID: 35880620]
[25]
Akhlaq, M.; Azad, A.K.; Fuloria, S.; Meenakshi, D.U.; Raza, S.; Safdar, M.; Nawaz, A.; Subramaniyan, V.; Sekar, M.; Sathasivam, K.V.; Wu, Y.S.; Miret, M.M.; Fuloria, N.K. Fabrication of tizanidine loaded patches using flaxseed oil and coriander oil as a penetration enhancer for transdermal delivery. Polymers, 2021, 13(23), 4217.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13234217] [PMID: 34883720]
[26]
Nowak, A.; Duchnik, W.; Makuch, E.; Makuch, E.; Kucharski, Ł.; Ossowicz-Rupniewska, P.; Cybulska, K.; Sulikowski, T.; Moritz, M.; Klimowicz, A. Epilobium angustifolium L. essential oil-biological activity and enhancement of the skin penetration of drugs - in vitro study. Molecules, 2021, 26(23), 7188.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237188] [PMID: 34885770]
[27]
Tak, J.H.; Isman, M.B. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Sci. Rep., 2017, 7(1), 42432.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42432] [PMID: 28181580]
[28]
Wong, R.; Geyer, S.; Weninger, W.; Guimberteau, J.C.; Wong, J.K. The dynamic anatomy and patterning of skin. Exp. Dermatol., 2016, 25(2), 92-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.12832] [PMID: 26284579]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy