Generic placeholder image

Anti-Infective Agents


ISSN (Print): 2211-3525
ISSN (Online): 2211-3533

Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Evidence of Antimalarial, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanol Extract of Emblica officinalis Fruit

Author(s): Jyoti Kaushik, Monu Yadav*, Nidhi Sharma, Deepak K. Jindal*, Kajal Joshi, Mini Dahiya and Aakash Deep

Volume 20, Issue 4, 2022

Published on: 26 July, 2022

Article ID: e180322202345 Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2211352520666220318091023

Price: $65


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of Emblica officinalis fruit ethanol extract.

Methods: Emblica officinalis fruit extract was prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus at room temperature for 48 hours with 99% ethanol and 1% of double-distilled water. GCMS was used to determine the phytoconstituent profile of an extract of Emblica officinalis fruit, and in-vitro assays were used to assess the biological activities.

Results: Malic acid, pyrogallol, cinnamic acid, pidolic acid, L-glucose, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, heneicosane, and levoglucosenone were identified in the extract by GCMS analysis. The ethanol extract of Emblica officinalis fruit showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with EC50=13.68 g/ml and antibacterial activity with MIC=6.25μg/ml and MIC=12.5 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Also, significant antifungal activity of the extract was observed with MIC=6.25μg/ml on Aspergillus niger.

Conclusion: The extract showed excellent affinity to scavenge the free radicals and protection of protein denaturation, which indicates its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. These protective effects may possibly be due to therapeutically active compounds present in Emblica officinalis fruit.

Keywords: Emblica officinalis, GCMS analysis, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory.

Graphical Abstract
Yadav, S.S.; Singh, M.K.; Singh, P.K.; Kumar, V. Traditional knowledge to clinical trials: A review on therapeutic actions of Emblica officinalis. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017, 93, 1292-1302.
[] [PMID: 28747010]
Dicko, A.; Mantel, C.; Thera, M.A.; Doumbia, S.; Diallo, M.; Diakité, M.; Sagara, I.; Doumbo, O.K. Risk factors for malaria infection and anemia for pregnant women in the Sahel area of Bandiagara, Mali. Acta Trop., 2003, 89(1), 17-23.
[] [PMID: 14636978]
Geleta, G.; Ketema, T. Severe malaria associated with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax among children in pawe hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Malar. Res. Treat., 2016, 2016, 1240962.
[] [PMID: 27047701]
Godwill, E.A. Malaria and treatment: Herbal antimalarials as alternative to conventional medicine. Res. J. Phytomedicine, 2015, 1, 4-7.
Sikdar, M.; Dutta, U. Traditional phytotherapy among the Nathpeople of Assam. Stud. Ethno-Med., 2008, 2(1), 39-45.
Das, A.K.; Tag, H. Ethnomedicinal studies of the Khamti tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2006, 5, 317-322.
Shankar, R.; Rawat, M.S. Medicinal plants and some folklore from East and West Siang district Arunachal Pradesh) their utilization. Bull. Med. Ethnobot. Res, 1996, 17, 1-7.
Bhide, M.M.; Nitave, S.A. Roles of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in medicine. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 3, 604-615.
Kumar, A.; Paliwal, D.; Saini, D.; Thakur, A.; Aggarwal, S.; Kaushik, D. A comprehensive review on synthetic approach for antimalarial agents. Eur. J. Med. Chem., 2014, 85, 147-178.
[] [PMID: 25084143]
Huthmacher, C.; Hoppe, A.; Bulik, S.; Holzhütter, H.G. Antimalarial drug targets in Plasmodium falciparum predicted by stage-specific metabolic network analysis. BMC Syst. Biol., 2010, 4(1), 120.
[] [PMID: 20807400]
Tangpukdee, N.; Duangdee, C.; Wilairatana, P.; Krudsood, S. Malaria diagnosis: A brief review. Korean J. Parasitol., 2009, 47(2), 93-102.
[] [PMID: 19488414]
Zareen, S.; Rehman, H.U.; Gul, N.; Zareen, H.; Hisham, M.; Ullah, I.; Rehman, M.U.; Bibi, S.; Bakht, A.; Khan, J.; Saeed, K. Malaria is still a life threatening disease review. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 2016, 4, 105-112.
Krishnaveni, M.; Mirunalini, S. Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): The ayurvedic wonder. J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2010, 21(1), 93-105.
[PMID: 20506691]
Variya, B.C.; Bakrania, A.K.; Patel, S.S. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacol. Res., 2016, 111, 180-200.
[] [PMID: 27320046]
Bhandari, P.R.; Kamdod, M.A. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review of potential therapeutic applications. Int. J. Green Pharm, 2012, 6(4), 257-269.
Fidock, D.A.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Croft, S.L.; Brun, R.; Nwaka, S. Antimalarial drug discovery: Efficacy models for compound screening. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2004, 3(6), 509-520.
[] [PMID: 15173840]
Shankar, R.; Deb, S.; Sharma, B.K. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med., 2012, 3(1), 10-16.
[] [PMID: 22529674]
Jain, P.K.; Das, D.; Pandey, N.; Jain, P. Traditional Indian Herb Emblica officinalis and its medicinal importance. J. Ayurvedic Sci, 2016, 4, 1-15.
WHO The World Malaria Report, 2016. Available from: on: October 19, 2019).
Trampuz, A.; Jereb, M.; Muzlovic, I.; Prabhu, R.M. Clinical review: Severe malaria. Crit. Care, 2003, 7(4), 315-323.
[] [PMID: 12930555]
Meena, A.K.; Singh, A.; Rao, M.M. Evaluation of physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2010, 3, 242-243.
Khan, K.H. Roles of Emblica officinalis in medicine - A Review. Bot. Res. Int., 2009, 2, 218-228.
Singh, N.; Mathur, C.; Sase, N.A.; Rai, S.; Abraham, J. Pharmaceutical properties of Emblica officinalis and Phyllanthus emblica extracts. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem, 2015, 6, 1007-1016.
Anila, L.; Vijayalakshmi, N.R. Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 79(1), 81-87.
[] [PMID: 11744299]
Muthuraman, A.; Sood, S.; Singla, S.K. The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat. Inflammopharmacol, 2011, 19(6), 327-334.
[] [PMID: 20596897]
Patil, V.M.; Masand, N.; Gupta, S.P. HCV inhibitors: Role of compounds from botanical sources. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2016, 16(12), 1402-1409.
[] [PMID: 26585934]
Castelli, F.; Odolini, S.; Autino, B.; Foca, E.; Russo, R. Malaria prophylaxis: A comprehensive review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2010, 3(10), 3212-3239.
Cui, L.; Mharakurwa, S.; Ndiaye, D.; Rathod, P.K.; Rosenthal, P.J. Antimalarial drug resistance literature review and activities and findings of the ICEMR network. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2015, 93(3)(Suppl.), 57-68.
[] [PMID: 26259943]
Zhang, Y.J.; Nagao, T.; Tanaka, T.; Yang, C.R.; Okabe, H.; Kouno, I. Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2004, 27(2), 251-255.
[] [PMID: 14758047]
Van den Steen, P.E.; Deroost, K.; Deckers, J.; Van Herck, E.; Struyf, S.; Opdenakker, G. Pathogenesis of malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Trends Parasitol., 2013, 29(7), 346-358.
[] [PMID: 23742967]
Schneider, C.; Adamcova, M.; Jick, S.S.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Miller, M.K.; Rhein, H.G.; Meier, C.R. Use of anti-malarial drugs and the risk of developing eye disorders. Travel Med. Infect. Dis., 2014, 12(1), 40-47.
[] [PMID: 24035311]
Patel, S.S.; Goyal, R.K. Emblica officinalis Geart: A comprehensive review on phytochemistry, pharmacology and ethnomedicinal uses. Res. J. Med. Plant, 2012, 6(1), 6-16.
Hasan, M.R.; Islam, M.N.; Islam, M.R. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblicaofficinalis: A review. Int. Curr. Pharm. J., 2016, 5(2), 14-21.
Patil, V.M.; Mandal, A.; Tomar, S.; Kumar, L.; Masand, N. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of diospyros melanoxylon. Nat. Prod. J., 2017, 7(4), 267-275.
Patil, V.M.; Masand, N.; Verma, S.; Masand, V. Chromones: Privileged scaffold in anticancer drug discovery. Chem. Biol. Drug Des., 2021, 989, 43-53.
Hossain, M.M.; Mazumder, K.; Hossen, S.M.M.; Tanmy, T.T.; Rashid, M.J. In-vitro studies on antibacterial and antifungal activities of Emblica officinalis. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2012, 3, 1124-1127.
Jyothi, S.; Rao, B.S. Screening of antibacterial activity of Emblica officinalis L. fruits. Pharmacologyonline, 2011, 3, 848-852.
Dhale, D.A.; Mogle, U.P. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus emblica (L.). J. Sci. Res. Rep., 2011, 1, 138-142.
Priya, G.; Parminder, N.; Jaspreet, S. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Emblica officinalis seed extract. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm., 2012, 3, 591-596.
Satish, S.; Mohana, D.C.; Raghavendra, M.P.; Raveesha, K.A. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus species. Agric. Technol. , 2007, 3, 109-119.
Mehrotra, S.; Jamwal, R.; Shyam, R.; Meena, D.K.; Mishra, K.; Patra, R.; De, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Srivastava, A.K.; Nandi, S.P. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and antioxidant properties of Emblica officinalis pulp extract: A potential source for therapeutic use against gastric ulcer. J. Med. Plants Res., 2011, 5, 2577-2583.
Liu, X.; Cui, C.; Zhao, M.; Wang, J.; Luo, W.; Yang, B.; Jiang, Y. Identification of phenolics in the fruit of emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem., 2008, 109(4), 909-915.
[] [PMID: 26050007]
Hazra, B.; Sarkar, R.; Biswas, S.; Mandal, N. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2010, 10(1), 20.
[] [PMID: 20462461]
Majumdar, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Haldar, P.K. Comparative in vitro free radical scavenging activity of some indigenous plants. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2010, 2, 1046-1049.
Shivaji, B.B.; Manju, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Sandhya, V.; Supriya, G.; Pranitha, K.; Kiran, B.; Lalitha, V. Comparative study of antibacterial and antioxi-dant activity of plant extract- Amla [Phyllanthus emblica L. Tulsi [Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Neem. Pharmacophore, 2010, 1, 178-183.
Charoenteeraboon, J.; Ngamkitidechakul, C.; Soonthornchareonnon, N.; Jaijoy, K.; Sireeratawong, S. Antioxidant activities of the standardized water extract from fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2010, 32, 599-604.
Jaijoy, K.; Soonthornchareonnon, N.; Panthong, A.; Sireeratawong, S. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Int. J. Appl. Res. Nat. Prod., 2010, 3, 28-35.
Vijayanand, S.; Sanjana, T. Phytochemical studies of Phyllanthus emblica, Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia extracts. Res. Health Sci., 2017, 5, 1810-1815.
Trager, W.; Jensen, J.B. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science, 1976, 193(4254), 673-675.
[] [PMID: 781840]
Govt. of India. Indian pharmacopoeia. Controller of Publication, Ministry of Health Department, New Delhi 2007.
Cappuccino, J.C.; Sherman, N. Microbiology-a laboratory manual; Addison Wesley: California, 1999, p. 263.
Faujdar, S.; Nain, S.; Kalia, A.N. Antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of Momordica balsamina. Int. J. Appl. Res., 2013, 2, 233-238.
Mishra, K.; Ojha, H.; Chaudhury, N.K. Estimation of antiradical properties of antioxidants using DPPH assay: A critical review and results. Food Chem., 2012, 130(4), 1036-1043.
Percário, S.; Moreira, D.R.; Gomes, B.A.Q.; Ferreira, M.E.S.; Gonçalves, A.C.M.; Laurindo, P.S.O.C.; Vilhena, T.C.; Dolabela, M.F.; Green, M.D. Oxidative stress in malaria. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2012, 13(12), 16346-16372.
[] [PMID: 23208374]
Ademuyiwa, O.; Ojo, D.A.; Ugbaja, R.N.; Rotimi, S.O. Endogenous antioxidant defences in malaria comorbidly occurring with typhoid. Free Radic. Antioxid., 2012, 2(4), 6-11.
Rahman, H.; Eswaraiah, M.C.; Dutta, A.M. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Oryza sativa Var. Joha Rice (An aromatic indigenous rice of Assam). Am.-Eurasian. J. Sustain. Agric., 2015, 15, 115-121.
Bailey-Shaw, Y.A.; Williams, L.A.D.; Green, C.E.; Rodney, S.; Smith, A.M. In-vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory potential of selected Jamaican plant extracts using the bovine serum albumin protein denaturation assay. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2017, 47, 145-153.
Gallego-Delgado, J.; Ty, M.; Orengo, J.M.; van de Hoef, D.; Rodriguez, A. A surprising role for uric acid: The inflammatory malaria response. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep., 2014, 16(2), 401.
[] [PMID: 24390755]
Middha, S.K.; Goyal, A.K.; Lokesh, P.; Yardi, V.; Mojamdar, L.; Keni, D.S.; Babu, D.; Usha, T. Toxicological evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit extract and its anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. Pharmacogn. Mag., 2015, 11(44)(Suppl. 3), S427-S433.
[] [PMID: 26929577]
Chawla, H.; Parle, M.; Yadav, M. Medicinal potential and phytopharmacology of Actnidiadelecios. Int. J. Pharmacol., 2016, 6(1), 20-25.
Saikia, P.; Bora, T.J. Phytochemical analysis of Emblica officinalis and Terminalia Chebula fruits extracts in Assam. Int. J. Recent. Res. Rev, 2018, 1, 23-25.
Sowmya, M.N.; Nanjammanni, N. An Phyto-chemical analysis of seedless amalaki fruit (Emblica officinalis) churna. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Invent., 2017, 6, 09-12.
Sturm, N.; Hu, Y.; Zimmermann, H.; Fritz-Wolf, K.; Wittlin, S.; Rahlfs, S.; Becker, K. Compounds structurally related to ellagic acid show improved antiplasmodial activity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2009, 53(2), 622-630.
[] [PMID: 19015351]
Verma, G.; Dua, V.K.; Agarwal, D.D.; Atul, P.K. Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya. Malar. J., 2011, 10(1), 20.
[] [PMID: 21288335]
Forkuo, A.D.; Ansah, C.; Boadu, K.M.; Boampong, J.N.; Ameyaw, E.O.; Gyan, B.A.; Arku, A.T.; Ofori, M.F. Synergistic anti-malarial action of cryptolepine and artemisinins. Malar. J., 2016, 15, 1-12.
Valzano, M.; Cecarini, V.; Cappelli, A.; Capone, A.; Bozic, J.; Cuccioloni, M.; Epis, S.; Petrelli, D.; Angeletti, M.; Eleuteri, A.M.; Favia, G.; Ricci, I. A yeast strain associated to Anopheles mosquitoes produces a toxin able to kill malaria parasites. Malar. J., 2016, 15(1), 21.
[] [PMID: 26754943]
Sarkar, S.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Saha, S.J.; De, R.; Mazumder, S.; Banerjee, C.; Iqbal, M.S.; Nag, S.; Adhikari, S.; Bandyopadhyay, U. Antimalarial activity of small-molecule benzothiazolehydrazones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2016, 60(7), 4217-4228.
[] [PMID: 27139466]
Dalal, R.; Ahlawat, P.K. nu, S.; us, V.; Panwar, V.S.; Tewatia, B.S.; Sheoran, N. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of Emblica officinalis fruit powder on intestinal micro-biota in broilers chicken. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2018, 7(4), 1432-1438.
Badoni, H.; Sharma, P.; Waheed, S.M.; Singh, S. Phytochemical analyses and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and toxic properties of Emblica officinalis and Terminalia bellirica fruit extracts. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2016, 9, 96-102.
Gaillard, T.; Madamet, M.; Tsombeng, F.F.; Dormoi, J.; Pradines, B. Antibiotics in malaria therapy: Which antibiotics except tetracyclines and macrolides may be used against malaria? Malar. J., 2016, 15(1), 556.
[] [PMID: 27846898]
Padmanabhan, P.; Jangle, S.N. Evaluation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of herbal preparation a combination of four medicinal plants. Int. J. Basic Appl. Med. Sci., 2012, 2, 109-116.
Saeed, N.; Khan, M.R.; Shabbir, M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2012, 12(1), 221.
[] [PMID: 23153304]
Adewole, K.E.; Adebayo, J.O. Antioxidant defense system induced by cysteine-stabilized peptide fraction of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida leaf in selected tissues of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. J. Integr. Med., 2017, 15(5), 388-397.
[] [PMID: 28844216]
Badhani, B.; Sharma, N.; Kakkar, R. Gallic acid: A versatile antioxidant with promising therapeutic and industrial applications. RSC Advances, 2015, 35(35), 27540-27557.
Nath, A.; Raghunatha, P.; Joshi, S.R. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi of Emblica officinalis, an ethnomedicinal plant of India. Mycobiology, 2012, 40(1), 8-13.
[] [PMID: 22783128]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy