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Current Drug Delivery


ISSN (Print): 1567-2018
ISSN (Online): 1875-5704

Review Article

Nose to Brain Delivery of Nanoformulations for Neurotherapeutics in Parkinson’s Disease: Defining the Preclinical, Clinical and Toxicity Issues

Author(s): Kamla Pathak and Nida Akhtar

Volume 13, Issue 8, 2016

Page: [1205 - 1221] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/1567201813666160607123409

Price: $65


Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is depicted as the most prevailed neurodegenerative disease being secondary to the Alzheimer’s disease. PD is featured by severe dropping of dopamine related neurons present in substantia nigra as well as cytoplasmic inclusions. A number of therapeutic agents are available to treat initial as well as later complications of PD. However, transport of neurotherapeutics into the brain has been a consistent challenge for researchers, because of the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB). In some last decades, nasal delivery pathway has gained extensive deliberations. Intranasal administration as a way to target neurotherapeutics to the central nervous system bypassing blood brain barrier, exhibit several advantages for treating neurodegenerative disorders. This route for transport of neurotherapeutics offers the merits of convenience of administration, avoidance of pre-systemic hepatic metabolism, and non- invasiveness.

Methods: Novel nano-sized formulations researched for intranasal transport of various actives have been reviewed using search engine “Scopus”. Feasibility of various nano-carriers systems such as nanoemulsions, lipid nanoparticles and polymeric micelles has been elaborated. The write up traces the preclinical and pharmacokinetic aspects of the nano-formulations.

Results: Nano-formulations are the rising formulations in PD treatment as they offer targeted drug delivery, enhanced therapeutic efficacy and decreased systemic side effects of neurotherapeutics. These formulations provide effective intranasal transport by encapsulating drug, protecting it from biological/ chemical degradation and extracellular transport through P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux thus, and enhancing CNS availability for drugs.

Conclusion: Thus, it can be put into conclusion that nano-neurotechnology; particularly application of nanotechnology has yielded potential outcomes in upcoming years.

Keywords: Nanoformulations, neuro-therapeutics, nose to brain delivery, Parkinson’s disease, preclinical aspects.

Graphical Abstract

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