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Recent Patents on Biotechnology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1872-2083
ISSN (Online): 2212-4012

Review Article

An Outline of the Immunogenic Potential of Progressing SARSCoV- 2 Vaccine Technologies among Children and Adolescents

Author(s): Hytham Ghanem*, Shehab Ghanem and Ehsan AlMutawa

Volume 18, Issue 3, 2024

Published on: 07 July, 2023

Page: [180 - 189] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1872208317666230612141930

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: SARS-CoV-2, a highly dynamic beta-coronavirus, can afflict all age groups. Notably, over 16100 mortalities have been recorded among children as yet. In this regard, many vaccine projects are operational to assess immuno-potency among young cohorts. A bulk of reports have evidenced the efficacy of these immunization technologies in the elderly population, though the impact is yet to be determined among children.

Objectives: This review is envisioned to outline the current efficacy of contributing vaccine technologies and examine the dose-dependent impact of immunization regimens in lowering the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and adolescents. Furthermore, the current review exclusively estimated the vaccine impact at current doses.

Methods: A total of 52 research papers extracted from PubMed, Pubmed Central, Science Direct, Research Gate, Google Scholar and Semantic Scholar were screened along with an emphasis on patents. Inclusion criteria involved all published reports directly or indirectly linked to the contributing vaccine candidates that are operational among the young cohort. Unrelated research papers were excluded from the study. Key search terminologies included information on vaccine identifiers, such as name, type and clinical trial ID, and successively restricted to children and adolscents age groups.

Results: Several vaccine designs, such as mRNA-based vaccinations, viral vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, inactivated vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and protein-based immunizations, are being examined at various stages of clinical trials to gauge the effects on children and adolescents. With reference to the published reports, the mRNA 1273 (1610 GMT; 6-10 yrs, 1401 GMT; 12-15 yrs), BNT162b2 (1407 GMT; 6 months- <2 yrs, 1535 GMT; 2-4 yrs, 4583 GMT; 5-11 yrs, 1239.5 GMT; 12-15 yrs) and Ad5 nCoV (1037.5 GMT; 6-17 yrs) offered relatively high neutralization titers with sharp seroconversion rates compared to MVC-COV1901 (648.5 GMT; 12-17 yrs) and ZyCoV-D (133.49 GMT; 12-17 yrs), which produced modest immune responses.

Conclusion: Currently, the WHO is analyzing emerging evidence to issue an emergency use list of vaccines for vaccinating children and adolescents.

Keywords: Children, adolescents, COVID‐19 vaccines, immunization technologies, SARS-CoV-2, vaccines.

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