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CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5273
ISSN (Online): 1996-3181

General Research Article

The Protective Effects of the Combination of Vitamin E and Swimming Exercise on Memory Impairment Induced by Exposure to Waterpipe Smoke

Author(s): Karem H. Alzoubi*, Abdulsalam M. Halboup, Omar F. Khabour and Mahmoud A. Alomari ⁠

Volume 22, Issue 2, 2023

Published on: 23 May, 2022

Page: [304 - 312] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1871527321666220318113635

Price: $65


Background: Waterpipe smoking (WP) exposure involves a negative health impact, including memory deficit, which is attributed to the elevation of oxidative stress. Vitamin E (VitE) in combination with swimming exercise exerts protective effects that prevent memory impairment. In the current study, the modulation of WP-induced memory impairment by the combined effect of VitE and swimming exercise (SE) was investigated.

Methods: Animals were exposed to WP one hour/day, five days per week for four weeks. Simultaneously, VitE (100 mg/kg, six days/week for four weeks) was administered via oral gavage, and the rats were made to swim one hour/day, five days/week for four weeks. Changes in memory were evaluated using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and oxidative stress biomarkers were examined in the hippocampus.

Results: WP exposure induced short-term/long-term memory impairment (p<0.05). This impairment was prevented by a combination of VitE with SE (p<0.05). Additionally, this combination normalized the hippocampal catalase, GPx, and GSH/GSSG ratios that were modulated by WP (p<0.05). The combination further reduced TBARs levels below those of the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: WP-induced memory impairments were prevented by the combination of VitE with SE. This could be attributed to preserving the hippocampal oxidative mechanism by combining VitE and SE during WP exposure.

Keywords: Waterpipe, hippocampus, memory, swimming exercise, vitamin E, radial arm water maze.

Graphical Abstract

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