<![CDATA[Spinal Cord Diseases]]> https://www.benthamscience.com RSS Feed for Disease Wise Article | BenthamScience EurekaSelect (+http://eurekaselect.com) Sun, 19 May 2024 07:42:23 +0000 <![CDATA[Spinal Cord Diseases]]> https://www.benthamscience.com https://www.benthamscience.com <![CDATA[Optimization of Microemulgel for Tizanidine Hydrochloride]]>https://www.benthamscience.comarticle/97179Background: Tizanidine hydrochloride acts centrally as a muscle relaxant. It is used for the treatment of painful muscle spasm, spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury and treatment of muscle spasticity in spinal cord disease. Tizanidine hydrochloride belongs to BCS class II. It has low oral bioavailability and short halflife. Incorporating this drug in microemulgel is an excellent way to overcome problems associated with the drug.

Objectives: Present research work was aimed to develop and optimize a microemulsion based gel system for tizanidine hydrochloride.

Methods: Screening of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant was carried out. Ternary phase diagram was constructed to obtain concentration range of components. The prepared microemulsion was evaluated for pH, globule size, zeta potential, conductivity, density and viscosity. 32 level factorial design was applied to study the effect of concentration of carbopol 934 and HPMC K15M on % cumulative drug release and viscosity of microemulgel using software Design Expert. Microemulgel was evaluated for pH, spreadability, viscosity, syneresis, drug content, bioadhesive strength, in-vitro as well as ex-vivo diffusion study.

Results: Microemulsion was prepared by using isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as a surfactant and transcutol P as cosurfactant. Largest transparent microemulsion region was found with Smix ratio of 1:1. FE-SEM showed globule size 28μm for batch B1 and zeta potential was -1.27mV indicating good stability of the microemulsion. Optimised batch was F6 which showed 92% drug release within 8 hours. It followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

Conclusion: A stable, effective and elegant microemulgel formulation, exhibiting good in-vitro and ex-vivo drug release was formulated.

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In this summary, recent advances in biotherapeutic delivery mechanisms across the BBB including transcranial brain drug delivery, focused ultrasound technology, nasal delivery, absorptive endocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis are evaluated using an industrial perspective. With acknowledgement that each approach has advantages and disadvantages, this review discusses the opportunities and challenges that are encountered during application of these methods across a variety of therapeutic areas such as, pain, obesity, neuroscience, and oncology. Utilizing an industrial perspective, including consideration of cost of goods and commercial feasibility for these approaches, this review highlights technology features which would enable industry investments toward novel BBB delivery technologies for biologics. Through continued development and improvement of such technology, new therapeutic options to treat and potentially cure central nervous system diseases could eventually evolve.]]>