<![CDATA[Encephalomalacia]]> https://www.benthamscience.com RSS Feed for Disease Wise Article | BenthamScience EurekaSelect (+http://eurekaselect.com) Wed, 19 Jun 2024 15:59:57 +0000 <![CDATA[Encephalomalacia]]> https://www.benthamscience.com https://www.benthamscience.com <![CDATA[Organic Lesions in the Brain MRI of Children with Febrile Seizure]]>https://www.benthamscience.comarticle/104849 Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included children presented with fever-unrelated seizures. The MRI was examined by a radiologist to identify abnormal findings in each patient. A researcher-made questionnaire including general information, history of head trauma, obstructed labor and the history of seizure was completed for the patients.

Results: Of 287 children with fever-related seizure, 127 (45.7%) were male and 151 (54.3%) were female. History of seizure, history of obstructed labor, abnormal MRI, complete delay, use of antiepileptic drug and history of trauma were 22(9.9%), 1 (0.4%), 11(4%), 5(1.8%), 259(93.2%) and 12 (4.3%), respectively. Of 11 patients with abnormal MRI, 4 had MTS lesions, 2 had tumor lesions, 2 had scarring trauma, 1 had an epidural abscess and 1 had meningitis. The frequency of organic lesions had no significant differences based on gender, use of antiepileptic drug and traumatic history, but it had a significant relation with obstructed labor andthehistory of seizure.

Conclusion: The results showed that organic brain lesions in children with fever-unrelated seizure had a significant relationship with the history of seizure and obstructed maternal labor.]]> <![CDATA[Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsies in Patients Presenting with Diplopia]]>https://www.benthamscience.comarticle/83283

Materials and Methods: For this study, we evaluated the brain and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of 26 patients retrospectively, who were diagnosed with binocular diplopia associated with sixth nerve palsy between 2011 and 2016. The MRI images were assessed for those pathologies that can cause diplopia. Additionally, the cisternal segment of the sixth cranial nerve was assessed with CISS sequences for possible vascular contact or compression.

Results: Nine of the 26 patients were over 50 years old, with medical histories of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia/hypercholesterolemia. Microvascular angiopathy was considered for diagnosis in those patients with sixth cranial nerve palsy, while the medical history was normal in 17 of these 26 patients. Brain and orbital MRIs were used to detect any cavernous sinus pathology and/or dural sinus vein thrombosis; however, the MRIs were normal in 9 of 17 patients with sixth cranial nerve palsy. Therefore, vascular compression and/or contact were detected in these patients using the CISS sequence, because diplopia can be caused by vascular contact or compression of the sixth cranial nerve.

Conclusion: Patients with complaints of double vision and normal brain and orbital MRIs should be evaluated using CISS sequences to show the relationships between the sixth cranial nerve and vascular structures.]]> <![CDATA[Neuroimaging of Non-Accidental Injury]]>https://www.benthamscience.comarticle/69158

What is not in question, however, is the role of imaging; the radiologist is often at the front line in terms of raising the spectre of NAI and in assessing the probability given the objective imaging features available.

Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) encompasses a broad spectrum of manifestations, ranging from trivial superficial injuries to potentially fatal severe brain trauma. In this review, we aim to introduce the epidemiological, historical and legal aspects of NAI. Focussing specifically on NAHI, current biomechanical theories and neuropathological aspects will be discussed. Finally, the patterns of injury and prognosticating features with respect to the various imaging modalities will be covered, with careful consideration given to differential diagnoses and syndrome mimics.

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