Book Volume 5
Page: i-ii (2)
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Sammer Yousuf
Page: 1-26 (26)
Author: Abdul Jalil Shah, Reyaz Hassan Mir*, Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Prince Ahad Mir, Saba Sabreen, Rafia Jan, Taha Umair Wani, Shah Asma Farooq and Mubashir Hussain Masoodi*
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Syzygium aromaticum (Family Myrtaceae), commonly acknowledged as clove, is one of the most valuable spices in the world trade market with global distribution, though Indonesia has maintained its top position as a producer. Clove has sustained its value in the past, dating back to 1700 BC, as is evident from clove found in a ceramic vessel in Syria and modern society. It is well integrated into culinary and non-culinary practices. Apart from culinary use, its distinctive chemical style has demonstrated incredible potential for cosmetic, medicinal, nutrition, and agricultural applications. The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) of the clove is above 10 million, making it the most potent antioxidant source ever found in a natural system. Clove imparts a vast range of activities due to various chemical compounds, for example, phenolics, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The significant phytoconstituents present in clove oil are primarily eugenol (70-85%), trailed by eugenol acetate (14-15%), and β-caryophyllene (5–12%). Their derivatives result in an extensive gamut of biological activity as antifungal, herbicidal, nematicidal, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antithrombotic, anaesthetic, pain-relieving, and insect repellent properties. Clove also finds its exceptional locus among various traditional medicinal practices. Along these lines, it is wise to say that clove itself has magnanimous pride among natural products. That is why we thought of covering its phytochemistry, phytopharmacology, and traditional values in detail. This chapter aims to present a comprehensive review of traditional and ethnomedicinal uses of clove in traditional medicine. We will then discuss the pharmacological activities reported for clove.
Page: 27-59 (33)
Author: Toktam Akaberi, Maryam Akaberi, Faegheh Farhadi and Seyed Ahmad Emami*
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Black cumin seeds are the seeds from Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae), an annual flowering plant native to southwest Asia. Traditionally, the seeds or the oil from them have been used for a range of health problems, particularly diabetes, digestive diseases, arthritis, and asthma, as well as a food additive and spice. Laboratory studies have shown that the seeds of N. sativa have anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anticonvulsant, anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-asthmatic and anti-cancer activities. It has also been proven to possess analgesic and wound healing properties. These seeds are also of clinical interest, especially for metabolic disorders, as they have the ability to reduce fat body contents and have beneficial effects on hypertension and diabetes. In addition, many clinical trials are ongoing to investigate the effects of black cumin seeds for the treatment of infertility, cancer, asthma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and arthritis rheumatoid. The mode of action of black cumin seeds is mostly mediated via anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, cytoprotective and antiinflammatory mechanisms. The most important bioactive constituents of black cumin seeds are essential oils, including thymoquinone and alkaloids, including pyrazole alkaloids such as nigellidine and nigellicine, and isoquinoline alkaloids such as nigellimine-N-oxide. The aim of the current chapter is to review the chemical, botanical, and pharmacological studies as well as the clinical potential of black cumin seeds.
Page: 60-77 (18)
Author: Mohd Akbar Dar*, Prince Ahad, Weekar Younis, Showkat Rasool, Bahar Ahmad, Seema Akbar and Mubashir Hussain Masoodi
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Mentha arvensis Linn. commonly called Podina, is a traditional herb of the family Lamiaceae distributed all over the world. First grown in Europe in ancient times, cultivation spread to Japan in the nineteenth century, then to China and other Asian countries ethnomedical records. Preliminary studies from the animal model have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use and the novel bioactive compounds. The chapter summarizes the selected scientific evidence on the pharmacological properties and phytochemistry of Mentha arvensis (L.) over the past 47 years from 1972 to 2020 available on several Non-English journals and English/Non-English, while identifying potential areas of further development of this herb as an economic adjunct. The evidence suggests that the extracts and compounds from Mentha arvensis (L.) possess antimicrobial action against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, antioxidant, antifertility, TNF-alpha inhibition, radioprotective, anti-ulcer, neuroleptic, nephroprotective, sedative-hypnotic, anticancer, antiemetic, analgesic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and other cardiovascular protective activities. The various scientific evidence suggests that there is strong pharmacological potential in developing Mentha arvensis (L.) as a drug to be used in the treatment of various disorders from antimicrobial to anticancer therapy.
Page: 78-114 (37)
Author: Rabinarayan Acharya* and Om Prakash Rout
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Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) - Ginger, an essential raw spice and natural medicine, plays an important role in the kitchen (a food spice) and has medicinal uses worldwide for health benefits. It is an ancient recipe of Indian systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy. Ginger is one of the important drugs of the Ayurvedic System of Medicine, known as the universal medicine (Viswabhesaja), and found in almost all classical formulations of Ayurveda for the treatment of different diseases, and the majority of Ayurvedic prescription drugs contain ginger as one of the ingredients. The present paper highlights the use of Zingiber officinale in the Ayurveda system of medicine in India. In Ayurveda, Zingiber officinale is used both in fresh (Ardraka) and dry (Shunthi) forms. Description of the drug appears in almost all pharmacopeia of Ayurveda known as Nighantu (lexicons), Samhita (treaties), Chikitsagrantha (Compendia), and Rasa grantha (Pharmacopeia), etc. Dry ginger is one of the ingredients of Trikatu (group of three pungent spices), a famous Ayurvedic formulation for the treatment of digestive and other disorders.
In Ayurveda, fresh ginger alone or along with other drugs is used in fever, coryza, and bronchial asthma, cough, disorders due to change of place, inadequate digestion, diarrhea, anorexia, piles, oedema, abdominal disorders, fainting, urticaria, earache, and rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
Dry ginger alone or with other medicines is used for fever, diarrhea, loss of appetite, indigestion, malabsorption syndrome, piles, hyperacidity, abdominal pain, heart diseases, abdominal lump, diseases of abdomen, oedema, hiccough and bronchial asthma, cough, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, filarial, diseases of the mouth, diseases of the ear, eye diseases, diseases of the head, for purifying breast milk, jaundice and scorpion poisoning, etc.
Recent research works have shown that the drug has nutritional value and has been clinically evaluated and found to be effective in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting, excessive menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea, cancer, diabetics, and rheumatic disorders, etc. The rhizome is rich in volatile oils (known as ginger essential oils), containing active compounds such as -gingerol (a phenylpropanoid, pungent compound found in fresh ginger), -shogaols (a dehydrated form of gingerols formed when ginger is dried or cooked, responsible for the pungency of dry ginger), zingiberol, Zingiberone, and α-Zingiberene. The plant has a number of chemicals responsible for its medicinal uses, including antiarthritis, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal properties, etc.
Page: 115-127 (13)
Author: Feyza Tosya and Sibel Bolek*
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Cinnamon has been used as a spice in many societies for a long time, as well as for medical use. Botanical source, climatic conditions, and harvesting and production techniques alter the cinnamon’s quality and chemical components. However, the geographical origin of the cinnamon and the conditions under which it is processed affect the chemical composition. Essential oils derived from the bark, leaf, and root bark of Cinnamomum verum vary significantly in chemical composition. Cinnamon and its extract are known to have many positive effects on health, regardless of the type. In traditional medicine, cinnamon barks are used in many kinds of treatment methods of diseases, such as gastrointestinal system disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, lungs infections, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders. For several decades, cinnamon has been used for its potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory attributes. It is effective in controlling blood sugar and lipid levels. In this study, components, structures, nutrients of cinnamon were reviewed. Various food enrichment studies with cinnamon were reviewed, and the changes cinnamon caused in the composition of foods were examined.
Page: 128-162 (35)
Author: Ceyda Sibel KILIÇ*
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Rhus coriaria is a plant which has been known and used for a long time all throughout the world as a dyestuff and condiment, and in addition to these well-known uses, it has various biological activities and thus is being used traditionally in different countries due to various important primary and secondary metabolites that it contains. Besides its traditional uses, there are studies on the antioxidant, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, antifungal, antilipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities of the plant; it is also known to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system and is used as a wound healer. Over time, an extensive amount of studies have been performed on the plant, and more studies are quite likely on the way in respect of a computational study performed on its effectiveness against COVID-19.
Many herbs and spices, in addition to their culinary use for taste, contain chemical compounds which have medicinal uses. For this reason, herbs and spices have been used for treating various ailments since ancient times. Modern scientific methods have enabled researchers to isolate bioactive compounds from herbs and spices and perform chemical analyses, which can be used to develop medicines to treat different diseases. This book series is a compilation of current reviews on studies performed on herbs and spices. Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs is essential reading for medicinal chemists, herbalists and biomedical researchers interested in the science of natural herbs and spices that are a common part of regional diets and folk medicine. The fifth volume of this series features research on a variety of spices some of which appear in the series for the first time. 1. Clove: The Spice of Polyvalent Merit 2. Black Cumin Seeds: From Ancient Medicine to Current Clinical Trials 3. The Evolution of Mentha arvensis (L.) As Potential Multifunctional Herbal Medicine: Traditional And Experimental Evidence 4. Zingiber officinale: The Golden Spice as Portrayed in Ayurveda 5. Effects of Cinnamon on Health and its Potential as a Functional Food Ingredient 6. Sumac: A Spice with Many Health Benefits