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Author: Shahid Ali Khan, Saad Salman and Youssef O. Al-Ghamdi
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Author: Waseeq Ur Rehman, Shahid Ali Khan*, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Tayyab Noor Khattak, Shah Hussain, Youssef O. Al-Ghamdi, Mahjoub Jabli and Yasir Anwar
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Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science covering all the technological fields. Likewise all other fields, the medical field is also encountered by nanotechnology. In this regard, nanopharmaceuticals has gained the attention of researchers, leading to the development of nanomedicines. Nanopharmaceuticals are biologicals active molecules used for the effectiveness of drug therapies on the nanoscale. Nanomedicines in the fast-developing area have shown very fruitful results. Nanomedicines offer varieties of properties, for example, it has the capability to cross the cell barriers in order to reach the targeted organelles. It also overcomes the multidrug-resistant and prevents the effect on healthy cells. Drug delivery based on nanoparticles has many applications. Nanoparticles-based drug delivery system delivers the specified drug to the cells of the targeted tissue by controlled release. Thus, it has overcome the limitations of conventional therapies. The anti-cancer drug delivery to the cancerous cells is one of the examples of nanocarriers-based therapy. Nanoshells are used in this regard. Nanoshells load the specified anticancer pharmaceuticals, penetrate the cells and attack the targeted organelles within cells. The main and important properties of this therapy are the prevention of healthy cells from the drug effect. Nanotechnology is also used in diagnosis. It is used in the diagnosis of bone fractures, cardiovascular diseases, cancerous cells identification, and the detection of tumors in the brain. Nanolaser-based surgery is also the emerging field of nanotechnology. For this purpose, nano microscopy was used. In nano microscopy, surgery nano-based tools are used in which have the ability to penetrate the cells and remove/ kill the infected organelles. In this chapter, almost all the aspects of nanotechnology have been discussed, with a special focus on nanocarriers.
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Author: Sifeng Lucy Chen* and Fahad Hassan Shah
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Nanotechnology encompasses the production of materials at the nanoscale level and has been applied to many fields, including medicine. Within nanoscale ranges, the physical properties of particles are dominated by quantum mechanics, thus resulting in chemical behaviours that are distinct from that of bulk substances. Nanobased therapeutics and medical devices take advantage of these specific properties in order to better image and model the underlying biochemical and biophysical changes in a system, especially in diseases that progress over time. More specifically, advances in stem cell research have been aided by the use of nanoscale materials, enabling scientists to enhance stem cell behaviours for precise gene editing, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. The interdisciplinary application of nanotechnology has great potential in clarifying the fundamentals of stem cell biochemistry, thus accelerating the development of future regenerative therapies.
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Author: Veena Ganti*
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Hematological anomalies are becoming more prevalent in the world and are comprised of blood-related diseases. They either disrupt normal blood circulation or reduce the blood volume and, consequently, death. Therapies are available to treat and alleviate these diseases, but they adversely interact with other organs/tissues to provoke them. To avoid such adverse scenarios, NT graced medicine to deliver therapeutic agents in nanocarriers that are engineered to transport them to their target site, averting untoward effects and functioning for a long time. In this chapter, we will be highlighting the role of NT in the treatment of hematological and other related diseases.
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Author: Fabeha Shafaat*, Roberto Parisi, Arpan Dey, Nipun Gorantla and Fahad Hassan Shah
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Graphene is a 2-dimensional allotropic structure and crystalline form of carbon in which atoms of carbons are supported by sigma bonds and arranged in a hexagonal-shaped lattice. These carbon allotropes contain unpaired electrons providing them with unique physiochemical properties and are further exploited in the formation of graphene derivatives. i.e., Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. These graphene derivatives caused a huge revolution in nanotechnological research. The nanocomposites of graphene derivatives are employed in drug delivery, nucleic acid delivery, tissue engineering, imaging, and biosensing. This chapter is focused on discussing the physiochemical properties of graphene nanoparticles and their biomedical applications.
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Author: Niyati H. Patel* and Fahad Hassan Shah
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Nanotherapeutics is an advancing technology and promising industry of the 21st century; with further development, it may hold secrets for the medical community and society as a whole. The development of nanotherapeutics into medicine is one of the newest developments in medical science that the scientific community has taken. The conventional approach of delivering anticancer drugs towards the targeted site is remained controversial and has numerous problems such as non-specific effects to the surrounding organs other than cancer affected, anticancer drug resistance, and chronic adverse effects. Recently, biomedical scientists have turned their attention towards nanocarriers possessing incredible activity to deliver anticancer drugs towards canceraffected areas without being disrupted by endogenous barriers, rendering lesser toxicity and promoting anticancer response. In this chapter, the overview of nanotherapeutic agents is thoroughly assessed in the treatment of cancers.
Page: 104-139 (36)
Author: Sibgha Batool, Maryam Bibi, Abid Mehmood Yousaf, Han Gon Choi and Fakhar ud Din*
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Nanotechnology has gained much interest over the past few years due to its ability to efficiently detect and treat different types of cancers. To overcome the limitations associated with traditional cancer treatment strategies such as lack of specificity, toxic effects, the pre-mature release of the drug, and multidrug resistance, nanomaterials have been widely utilized. Nanomaterials not only enhance the drug accumulation at a specific site but also improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. Some other advantages of nanocarriers include targeted and controlled drug delivery, less toxic effects, enhanced solubility and stability, and greater availability of chemotherapeutic agents to the cancer cells due to enhanced permeability and retention effect. The physicochemical properties of nanocarriers can be modified by varying their shapes, sizes, and surface characteristics (PEGylation, ligand, or functional group attachment). Various types of nanomaterials have been utilized for pharmaceutical and medical purposes, most importantly for cancer therapy, depending upon their nature and composition, such as lipid-based, polymeric-based, protein-based, carbon-based, and hybrid nanomaterials. Many of these nanocarrier drug delivery systems have been developed, among which only a few have been clinically approved for anti-cancer drug delivery. The rationale of using nanotechnology for anticancer drugs is to achieve targeted delivery via active or passive targeting and diminish the damages to healthy tissues. So, the ultimate objective of these nanocarriers is to effectively treat the diseases with fewer side effects.
Page: 140-155 (16)
Author: Adeel Hassan, Sawara Sajal, Laiba Zakir, Sakina Munir, Fahad Hassan Shah, Song Ja Kim*, Kashif Iqbal and Saad Salman*
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metallic nanoparticles that are used for different biological purposes. Few toxic traits of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) producing plants are expressed; however, lesser is known about their genotoxic properties. This work discovered the cytotoxic and genotoxic risks of the entire concentrate from AgNPs of ethereal parts. Few studies had demonstrated that exaggerated reactions were not emerged by the four strains of Salmonella typhimurium, presented to fixations up to 5 mg/plate, with or without mammalian metabolic actuation (liver microsomal S9 division from Wistar rodents). In cytogenic cells and culture studies, higher doses (25–100 μg/mL) demonstrated a significant decrease in cell viability. In sister chromatids, chromosome distortions portrayed that AgNPs are genotoxic at the most noteworthy fixation utilized when clear cytotoxic impacts were also observed. Though, no expansion in micronuclei recurrence in bone marrow cells was identified when the extract was administered orally to mice (100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg dosages). The information was acquired to set up the most farreaching extract on the genotoxic capability of AgNPs. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the plant extracts plus AgNPs can cause in-vitro DNA hindrance at cytotoxic doses.
Page: 156-181 (26)
Author: Fayaz Ali*, Yinghuai Zhu and Yi Zhun Zhu*
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Boron belongs to the metalloid group and has an atomic number 11. Boron does have an important role in humans and animals; however, it is not well understood. According to developmental biology, boron is a necessary component of embryonic development and when it is deficient, it causes impaired embryos or necrosis. Different types of boron nanomaterials, such as nanoclusters, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons, nanobelts, nanosheets, and monolayer crystalline sheets, have recently been created experimentally. Boron nanomaterials have a different bonding configuration than three-dimensional bulk boron crystals in icosahedral because of their reduced dimensionality. Furthermore, the wide range of boron nanoparticles available could serve as building blocks for mixing with other existing nanomaterials, atoms, molecules, and/or ions to create new materials with novel properties and functions. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a new two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial that has been employed in biomedical applications. This material exhibits semi-conductive capabilities due to its enlarged band gap, allowing it to be used as a biosensor and disparity agent. BNNs (boron nitride nanotubes) are also being investigated for use in regenerative medicine and medication delivery. Because of its bioactive properties, this particular nanomaterial (BNNs) has a lot of potential in the field of tissue engineering. The advancement of boron nanoparticles during the previous decade has been evaluated, and future directions and guidelines for biomedical applications are discussed.
Page: 182-222 (41)
Author: Robaica Khan, Muhammad Bilal, Fahad Hassan Shah, Song Ja Kim*, Junaid Dar, Ayesha Sajjad, Kashif Iqbal and Saad Salman*
PDF Price: $15
During recent years, the development of suitable green chemistry methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has become the main focus of researchers. The investigations are under process for the creation of standardized nanoparticles (NPs). One of the most frequent ways for NPs synthesis is using plants that are ideally suited for nanoparticle production. The nanoparticles created from various organisms vary in physical appearance, and the plant-based NPs enable the researchers to explore the plant mechanisms for the uptake and creation of metallic NPs. Nanotechnology is emerging as a crucial discipline of science and technology that examines the cell-level interaction between synthetic and biological materials. The use of this technology is rising worldwide due of its advantages and simplicity. Organisms from primitive prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes and angiosperm plants are used for the production of NPs. Further investigation and study are required in this field to enhance the biological synthesis of nanoparticles. This book chapter discussed the plants employed in NPs synthesis. It also represents the many biological systems that create the art of fabrication of NPs and the development of this advanced technology.
Advances in technology have enabled medicinal chemists to discover and formulate several highly specific, biocompatible, and non-toxic therapeutic agents for clinical applications. Nanotechnology has achieved significant progress in the last few decades and is crucial in every field of science and technology. Nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals offer multifaceted and alternative methodologies in comparison to the limitations of many conventional clinical therapies. Expertise in designing and developing nanoformulations has helped in targeted drug delivery. Recently, the use of innovative therapeutic agents, particularly in nanomedicine, has accounted for a significant portion of the global pharmaceutical market and is predicted to continue to grow rapidly in the near future. Nanotherapeutic Strategies and New Pharmaceuticals is an accessible multi-part reference which informs the reader about several new techniques based on nanotechnology. The chapters explain relevant topics in detail. The book is designed to encourage and help undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nanotherapeutics, pharmaceuticals and bio-organic chemistry through the use of didactic language and simple illustrations. Part 1 of this book set explains general advances in nanomedicine, followed by chapters covering the role of nanotherapeutics in hematology and cancer treatment, as well as specific types of nanomaterials based on different components (such as boron, graphene, silver and other metals). The book also features a chapter that summarizes the processes for designing nanoparticles tailored for specific targets. The book serves as a textbook for students in pharmacology and medical biochemistry, as well as a quick reference for researchers on bio-organic chemistry, as well as general readers interested in nanomedicine.