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Author: Payal Singh and Sachchida Nand Rai
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In the 21st century, a lot of progress has been made in the treatment against different kinds of Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs). Antioxidant therapy is one of the most common types of therapy for NDs. Among Antioxidant therapy, reduced GSH delivery systems are widely utilized. Gut-microbiome based treatment is also widely accepted. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major hurdles that reduce the efficacy of several neuroprotective drugs. That is why nanoformulation based drug is currently trending to potentially treat the neurodegenerative disease. 3D organoid model is employed to mimic the in vivo condition for the development of drugs for NDs. Target specific surgical interventions are also utilized to improve the symptoms of neurological diseases. Chemical compound mediated protection only provides symptomatic relief. In long term usage, this chemical compound causes several side effects. Herbal plant-mediated therapy is a better alternative for the same. Diet is a basic part of our life. By manipulating our diet in such a way that include several beans may be very helpful in the treatment of several NDs. Accordingly, this chapter explores some important recent advancement in the treatment of different NDs.
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Author: Mridula Chaturvedi and Abhishek Kumar Chaturvedi
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are not the only diseases but a key term for a range of conditions that mainly affect the neurons in the human brain resulting in progressive degeneration or death of the nerve cells, which is a deadly and debilitating state. It affects millions of people worldwide. The most common NDDs worldwide are Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to De Lau & Breteler et al., the incidence of PD is about 10 million globally (i.e., approximately 0.3% of the world population) and 1% of those above 60 years. Management of NDDs has become a big challenge in the modern system of medicine & public health at present because of demographic changes worldwide. There is no specific therapy for the conventional management of NDDs in the modern system of medicine. The absence of specific and complete therapy for NDDs in the present era makes Ayurveda more important to consider some alternative and complementary system of medicine for the treatment. Ayurveda is an Indian system of medicine that comes under AYUSH and treats the NDDs since its inception, which is mainly described under the VataVyadhi (neurological disorder) context. In this chapter, the recent advancement in Ayurvedic medicinal plants, RasaAusadhies (herbo-mineral drugs) & combined drugs, Panchkarma therapies (bio-purification procedures), and Yoga & Asanas (bodily postures) that successfully treat the various common NDDs worldwide will be described.
Page: 50-72 (23)
Author: Shambhoo Sharan Tripathi, Raushan Kumar, Prabhash Kumar Pandey, Abhishek Kumar Singh and Nidhi Gupta
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Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are one of the leading serious problems worldwide, not only for developed countries but also for developing countries. NDs can be described as a progressive loss of neurons of the central nervous system that leads to cognitive impairment in individuals. The generation of excess reactive oxygen species is one of the reasons for the pathogenesis of NDs. From the various study, it has been established that the use of antioxidants may reduce the onset of NDs. The treatment of these diseases is very costly; for example, the cost of AD worldwide is estimated to be~ $800 billion in 2015. Moreover, in 2017 the cost of PD is reported to have been greater than ~$14 billion in the United States. Now, the researchers have focused on the screening of phytochemicals that have a huge antioxidant effect and neuroprotective ability. Phytochemicals are plant-derived biochemical, and they are described to have a protective effect on oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and provide better mental health. In this chapter, we have incorporated some important phytochemicals that have a great capacity to protect our brain cells and slow down or inhibit NDs pathogenesis.
Page: 73-92 (20)
Author: Prabhash Kumar Pandey*, Shambhoo Sharan Tripathi, Jayant Dewangan, Ranjan Singh, Farrukh Jamal and Srikanta Kumar Rath
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Vitamins are naturally present in vegetables, spices, food supplements, and fruits. Vitamins can mitigate or prevent the pathophysiological phenomena involved in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a progressive and disabling syndrome that affects the person’s quality of life by causing motor and non-motor disturbances and imposing an enormous burden on the caregivers. Oxidative stress (OS), neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and formation of free radicals are behind the PD. Various clinical scientific shreds of evidence explain the role of vitamins in the treatment of PD. Several cellular and animal-based experiments point out that proper intake of vitamins is helpful in PD treatment. The time, exact doses, and safety of regular consumption of these supplements still need to be explored more by the scientific community. A balanced diet with vitamins as supplements can boost up the current therapies used against the PD. Vitamins have the crucial antioxidant property that acts against the OS, thus helps in PD treatment. Through different molecular mechanisms, these vitamins protect dopaminergic neurons. There is a need for a cure against the PD. A promising approach to cure this disease by natural means, such as vitamins, has been focused throughout this chapter. In this book chapter, the authors collected the scientific evidence available throughout the various experimental platforms and literature related to the functional role of vitamins in the improvement of the clinical framework of PD patients.
Page: 93-119 (27)
Author: Nilofar Khan and Ravishankar Patil
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a progressive, selective loss of physiologically related neuronal systems. Some prominent diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Huntington’s disease (HD). It is believed that oxidative stress-induced cellular degeneration, inflammation, mitochondrial involvement, and dysfunction are important aspects in the pathogenesis of NDDs. Despite many decades of research and intensive studies, it has been an unending struggle to discover the root cause and a cure for these life-threatening ailments. However, the emerging domains of research provide evidence that probiotics and human gut microflora have a peculiar relationship with health and the pathogenesis of several diseases, including NDDs. Microbiome and nutrients have a profound impact on the brain by influencing their development and function in health and diseases. The gut ecosystem and any modulation thereof exhibit a significant impact on the physiological and psychological health of an individual. The present chapter discusses the effect of the beneficial gut microbial community versus pathogens on the overall human health and its role in the development, diagnosis, and management of NDDs, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, the potency of probiotics and prebiotics as a gut-friendly therapeutic agent to treat these disorders is highlighted.
Page: 120-138 (19)
Author: Ankita Kushwaha*, Vivek K. Chaturvedi, Sachchida Nand Rai, Sanjay C. Masih and M. P. Singh
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Mushrooms are used not only for culinary purposes, but also for the treatment of various chronic diseases. It shows vital therapeutic activity in several neurodegenerative disorders such as, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. These diseases are non-communicable as well as age-related. Currently, no drug therapy is available to treat such neurodegenerative disorders; instead, it is best to delay progression of these diseases. Accumulated evidence has suggested that culinary or medicinal mushrooms may play a significant role in the prevention of these disorders, as mentioned earlier, and dementia. Therefore, daily consumption of mushrooms in the diet may improve memory and cognitive functions, including mushrooms such as, Hericium Erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidium, Pleurotus giganteus, Dictyophora indusiata, Sarcodon scabrosus, Antrodia camphorata Termitomyces albuminosus, Paxillus panuoides, Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii, Lignosus rhinocerotis, and numerous other species. These mushrooms show potent antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and memory-enhancing activities. This chapter deals with the therapeutic activity of mushrooms and their bioactive components for different neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, mushrooms can be considered supportive and promising candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.
Advances in Experimental Animal Models Provide Insights into Different Etiology and Mechanism of Multiple Sclerosis to Design Therapeutics
Page: 139-159 (21)
Author: Sourodip Sengupta and Jayasri Das Sarma*
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Myelin covering of axons in the central and peripheral nervous system helps in faster propagation of neuronal action potentials. Demyelination is a neurodegenerative process in which the axons lose their myelin coverings, exposing the axons to surroundings and leading to a reduction in neuron-to-neuron communication. Several demyelinating diseases exist in humans, and one of the most frequently occurring demyelinating disease of the CNS is multiple sclerosis (MS). Although more than 2.3 million people suffer from MS globally, the disease etiology is still unknown, impeding the development of effective therapeutics. The available treatments are based on disease-modifying therapy to reduce or moderate the symptoms and slow the disease progression; however, none can cure the disease. One key to better design therapeutics is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of MS by developing reliable model systems. Human studies have their own limitations, such as limited access to patient tissues. Moreover, genetic variability makes it difficult to identify the triggers of MS. This calls for the development of reliable experimental animal models to understand MS pathogenesis better. There is no exclusive experimental model that covers the entire gamut of the disease. In this chapter, we will discuss experiment autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-induced models of demyelination that mimic specific histopathological and neurobiological aspects of multiple sclerosis. The present understanding of MS as an autoimmune disease mediated by self-reactive T-cells comes mainly from studies on the EAE model. Further, viral-induced demyelination models have provided valuable insights into a better understanding of MS. Studies in the TMEV model have demonstrated molecular mimicry and epitope spreading as major mechanisms of virus-induced neuroinflammation. Our knowledge of immune-mediated CNS damage has been further enhanced by studies on MHV-induced neuroinflammatory demyelination, suggesting macrophage-mediated myelin stripping in neurodegeneration. While the limitations of these models of MS are obvious, appropriate use of this model has led to the development of clinically useful drugs for the treatment of this devastating disease.
Page: 160-177 (18)
Author: Priyanka Gautam, Mukesh Kumar Jogi and Abhishek Pathak*
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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset, irremediable, and fatal neurodegenerative disease marked by the advancement in the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Etiology is blurred, but it is thought to be multifactorial, which contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of the disease. Core knowledge of primary etiology and pathological mechanisms can pave the way towards treatment. This chapter examines mechanisms that may contribute to motor neuron degeneration, among which oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, axonal transport are potential novel therapeutic targets for ALS treatment.
Page: 178-207 (30)
Author: Hemraj Heer, Vishav Prabhjot Kaur, Tania Bajaj, Arti Singh, Priyanka Bajaj and Charan Singh*
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Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), are caused by oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteinopathy. These are further characterized by loss of neurons and, consequently, impaired cognitive functions. However, the exact mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases are still unknown. Nowadays, natural compounds like curcumin, quercetin, resveratrol, and piperine, among others, have been explored for the treatment and prevention of neurological disorders. There are various in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for alleviating neurological disorders using natural compounds encapsulated in nanocarrier systems. Nanoparticles such as lipidic, polymeric, quantum dots help to enhance the bioavailability, specificity, and targeted delivery of these compounds in the brain. Various simple and reproducible methods are reported to synthesize the nanoparticles in the literature. In this chapter, we will explore the role of nanotechnology and natural compounds to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.
Page: 208-213 (6)
Author: Vivek K. Chaturvedi, Payal Singh and M.P. Singh*
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Nanoparticle plays a very effective role in the therapeutics of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main barrier that prevents the efficiency of any therapeutic compound.Nanoparticles overcome this problem by crossing the BBB. Recently many nanoparticles show promising responses in PD. Silver, gold, and many other nanoparticles effectively prevent progressive neurodegeneration in PD. In this book chapter, we have included some recent development in the nanoparticles mediated therapeutics for PD.
Researchers have tried various effective treatments that prevent the progressive neurodegeneration of neurons within the brain. Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and Multiple sclerosis (MS) are some of the most common neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Recent Advances in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders provides interesting updates on treatments of these neurological disorders. Ten chapters have been contributed by experts in pharmacology and give a unique perspective to reader on special topics in this area, including the treatment of neurodegenerative treatment of neurodegenerative disease through ayurveda and phytochemicals, the therapeutic role of vitamins in Parkinson’s disease, mushrooms in NDD treatment, MS treatment, ALS treatment and the use of nanoparticles and nano formulations in NDD treatment. This is an informative reference for pharmacologists, medicinal chemists and healthcare professionals (general practitioners and neurologists) seeking updates in the treatment of some common neurodegenerative disorders.