Transdermal administration offers an interesting alternative to oral and parenteral drug administration; nevertheless, skin is an important barrier for drug absorption. Iontophoresis, a technique that consist of the application of low current density across a membrane can facilitate drug entrance through it. Iontophoresis can be used for local effects on skin, nail, eye or ear and it can also be used for systemic delivery when applied through skin. In this chapter, the mechanisms involved in drug transport during iontophoresis application and factors affecting its efficacy are reviewed. Examples of the use of iontophoresis in different fields are presented together with the most recent research.
Keywords: Ear permeation, Electric current treatment, Electromotive drug delivery, Eye permeation, Iontophoresis, Iontophoretic devices, Low current treatment, Nail permeation, Physical permeation enhancement, Transdermal absorption.