The chemical composition of honey has been widely investigated around the world. Studies have shown how geographical and botanical origin of honey influences its physical-chemical properties, being a useful tool for evaluation of authenticity and differentiation. In this chapter, a review has been performed in order to describe the chemical composition and the most important nutritional properties of honeys from several countries and diverse botanical origins. Reported data of honeys for water, sugars, ash, minerals, color conductivity, aminoacids and quality indicators, such free acidity, enzymes and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are mentioned and also compared to the established limits given by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Honey Commission.
Keywords: Apiculture, Authenticity, Bioactive compounds, Biological activity, Carbohydrates, Chemical markers, Classification, Color, Differentiation, Electrical conductivity, Flavonoids, HMF, Honey enzymes, Minerals, Moisture, Nutrition, Origin, Phenolic compounds, Quality, Volatile compounds.