Mesenchymal Cell Activation by Biomechanical Stimulation and its Clinical Prospects

Cellular Molecular Pathways in Distraction Osteogenesis

Author(s): Yoav Leiser and Adi Rachmiel

Pp: 65-72 (8)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681081991116010010

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The process of in vivo bone generation following mechanical stimulation of cells by external distraction force is defined as “distraction osteogenesis”. The events in bone formation and neovascularization in membranous craniofacial bones during the distraction osteogenesis are presented in this chapter.

When distraction force is applied, cellular differentiation in pluripotent tissue, via specific biochemical pathways, is activated with subsequential osteogenesis.

Multifactorial interrelations between osteoblasts and other bone cells occur at the bone forming boundaries. There are several cytokines and growth factors that regulate bone generation and resorption while distraction osteogenesis.

External distraction induces formation of a pool of progenitor cells that dedicated to osteoblastogenesis and local vascularisation.

Recognition of the molecular cellular pathways of membranous distraction osteogenesis is important for the further design of efficient clinical methods for therapeutic bone regeneration.

Keywords: Bone regeneration, distraction osteogenesis, osteoblast.

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