In 2013, the world production of ethanol was about 23.4 billion gallons. However, because of a global increase in fuel consumption, an increase in bioethanol production is necessary. The search for new energy sources increased the attention on biomass; now it is used directly for energy cogeneration by combustion and for the production of new fuels such as cellulosic ethanol or lignocellulosic ethanol, also called second-generation (2G) ethanol. Bioethanol production employing renewable sources is increasingly in demand worldwide because of the continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing environmental safety concerns. Brazil and USA are the two largest producers and exporters of ethanol in the world. Nevertheless, other countries including China, India, Canada, Japan, Colombia, and Argentina have assumed featured positions in global fuel ethanol production. Therefore, this new world order may result in the development of an industrially suitable production strategy that will solve our energy crisis by producing more ethanol sustainably.
Keywords: 2-G ethanol, Biodiesel, Bioenergy production, Bioethanol, Biofuels, Biorefinery, Biotechnology, Cellulase production, Cellulosic ethanol, Environmental impacts, Fermentation, Fuels and energy, Fungal biotechnology, Genetic engineering, Global energy, Hydrolytic enzymes, Liquid biofuels, Sugarcane, Worldwide production.