Women’s Heart and Estrogens

Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Author(s): Genovefa D. Kolovou

Pp: 156-175 (20)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681081120115010008

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The most common cause of death in menopausal women is cardiovascular disease with sudden death as the more severe complication. It is noteworthy to mention that two out of the three women who die suddenly, have been asymptomatic before.

More than one in three American women have some form of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism). One in 31 women die of breast cancer, one in three die from cardiovascular disease.

This data led medical societies to suggest more intensive primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. The results from the Women’s Health Initiative and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study studies trigger a lot of discussion. Both unexpectedly reported an association between hormone replacement therapy and increased cardiovascular disease risk incidence.

Thus, the need for cardiovascular disease strategy prevention in women other than hormone replacement therapy, based on documented evidence and a critical review was required. The guidelines/scientific statements, which have been reported by various medical societies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women, will be analyzed.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease prevention in women, Guidelines, Recommendations.

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