Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Volume: 3

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging in Breast Cancer Prognosis and Diagnosis

Author(s): Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas, Tony Antakly, Abdel-Hamid Saoudi, Suliman Al-Ghamdi and Hacene Serrai

Pp: 3-35 (33)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681080628115030003


Breast cancer (BC) has the highest occurrence and mortality of all cancers that affect women with more than one million new cases each year across the globe. BC accounts for about one-quarter of all cancer-related deaths. Even though breast cancer is an aggressive and fatal disease, early detection and treatment can result in increased survival in more than three-quarters of diagnosed patients. In general, traditional diagnostic methods, such as ultrasonography and mammography, considerably increase t survival rates due to early disease detection. Although these traditional methods are useful, new strategies for early detection of breast cancer would likely reduce breast cancer mortality rates. Additional diagnostic imaging modalities, such as Computer Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and other types of scintigraphy techniques, have been used to identify the primary source of the cancer in metastatic cases, but none of these techniques is yet in routine clinical use. Among other imaging methodologies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) approaches are powerful tools for uncovering cancer biomarkers. In this review, we consider the current capabilities of magnetic resonance techniques in breast cancer research and highlight some milestones that are necessary to move early detection of breast cancer using such approaches into mainstream health care modalities.

Keywords: Biomarker, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Diagnosis, HR-MAS NMR, Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Mammography, Metabolomics. Metabolites, Mortality, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Prognosis, Tomography, Spectroscopy, Utrasonography, World Health Organization.

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