Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, novel methods of time series analysis have been developed for the examination of task- and performance-related oscillatory activity and its synchronization. Studies employing these advanced techniques revealed that synchronization of oscillatory responses in the β- and γ-band is involved in a variety of cognitive functions, such as perceptual grouping, attention-dependent stimulus selection, routing of signals across distributed cortical networks, sensory-motor integration, working memory, and perceptual awareness. Here, we review evidence that certain brain disorders, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's are associated with abnormal neural synchronization. The data suggest close correlations between abnormalities in neuronal synchronization and cognitive dysfunctions, emphasizing the importance of temporal coordination. Thus, a focused search for abnormalities in temporal patterning may be of considerable clinical relevance.