Health care is a crucial policy issue worldwide and is forecast to continue to be so in future. Why do health care systems in many countries seem to be continuously undergoing reform planning and implementation? Why is the sustainability of Australia’s health system of major concern, and what lessons can be learnt from recent health reform initiatives? In this Chapter we provide an overview of the major health policy areas of concern in the 21st century, including population ageing, health expenditure pressures and emerging major health threats likely to impact on chronic disease prevention and treatment. The focus will be on issues that can be resolved or influenced by individuals, governments, or the medical profession.