A Handbook of Oral Physiology and Oral Biology

Oral Microbial Flora

Author(s): Anastasios K. Markopoulos

Pp: 53-63 (11)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805113711001010053

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


The normal oral flora of humans is exceedingly complex and consists of more than 200 species of bacteria. The composition of the oral flora may be influenced by various factors, including oral hygiene, genetics, age, sex, stress and diet of the individual. At birth, the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx are often sterile at birth but may be contaminated by passage through the birth canal 4-12 hours after birth. The development of the teeth is accompanied by the appearance of other regions, which may provide suitable conditions for growth of microorganisms.

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