Multifetal gestation accounts for a small percentage of births but results in significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this chapter the differences between a singleton and multifetal gestation will be elucidated. The presence of more than one fetus results in increasing risks for both mother and each fetus. Preterm birth is of greatest concern, however unique and rare complications may occur resulting in significant challenges for providers. Because of the significant cost to both patients and to society as a whole, there are ongoing efforts to limit the number of multiples derived through assisted reproductive technology.
Keywords: Multifetal gestation, Prematurity, Twins, Multiple births, Pregnancy complications, Congenital malformation, Growth restriction, Monochorionic gestation, Preterm labor, Infertility, Assisted reproductive technology, IVF.