There is an increasing awareness of the importance of improved neonatal care in reducing infant mortality rates (IMR) across the globe. These ideas are well entrenched in the Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs) to improve new born care. Lack of availability of skilled health care personnel, lack of proper facilities and lack of equipment in rural areas are the major contributors to high neonatal mortality in developing countries. Since the declaration of MDGs by the United Nation in 2000, a steady progress is being recorded around the world. National programs have been developed to meet MDG target date of 2015. The good news is that fewer women and children (infants and newborns) are dying now than before. Maternal deaths have declined by almost 50% and death of children under five have decreased from 12 million to 7.6 million since 1990. However, much more needs to be done. It is not possible for all countries to reach the targeted goals of MDG 4 and 5 by 2015. Therefore the work must continue with greater vigor in years to come. Finally the contributions of several international programs to promote the Millennium developmental goals particularly the MDG 4 and MDG5 must be recognized. These include: The American International Health Alliance, the Bill and Melinda Gate Foundation, Save the Children, and the UNICEF. These programs have made enormous contributions to scaling up the programs to accelerate reduction of neonatal and infant mortality across the globe.
Keywords: Neonatal care, Neonatal mortality rate, Infant mortality rate, Maternal mortality rate, Neonatal intensive care units, Special care newborn units, Millennium developmental goals, Low and middle income countries, Outcome, Cost, WHO.