Infections of the meninges (meningitis) and the brain (encephalitis) needs to be identified and managed promptly in order to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. Symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure are frequently the initial features of meningitis caused by bacterial or viral infections. Encephalitis is more frequently caused by viral infections with features that include seizures, personality change, decreased consciousness, and focal neurological manifestations. As the infection progress, mixed features are frequently encountered (meningoencephalitis). In this chapter, an updated overview of meningitis and encephalitis in infants and children is presented.
Keywords: Meningitis, Encephalitis, Viral, Bacterial, Tuberculosis, Fungal, Seizures, Encephalopathy, Lumber puncture, Antibiotics.